Isopropyl Alcohol Poisoning: Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis
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Isopropyl Alcohol Poisoning

What Is Isopropyl Alcohol Poisoning?

Highlights

  1. Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is a common chemical that’s found in many cleaning products. When too much IPA is ingested, IPA poisoning can occur.
  2. Some of the most serious symptoms of IPA poisoning include slowed breathing, dizziness, and coma.
  3. Call 911 or go to the hospital immediately if you have swallowed a product containing IPA.

Isopropyl alcohol (IPA), also referred to as isopropanol, is a chemical that’s commonly found in rubbing alcohol, hand sanitizers, and certain cleaning products. IPA poisoning occurs when the liver is no longer able to manage the amount of IPA in the body.

Ingestion may be accidental or deliberate. IPA causes rapid intoxication, so people sometimes drink it to get drunk. Other people use it to attempt suicide. IPA absorbed through the skin can also cause poisoning.

Symptoms may appear immediately or may take a few hours to become noticeable. IPA poisoning usually causes:

  • stomach pain
  • confusion
  • dizziness
  • slowed breathing

In severe cases, it can lead to a coma.

IPA poisoning requires immediate medical attention. Call 911 or go to an emergency room right away if you suspect that you or someone you know has IPA poisoning.

Symptoms of Isopropyl Alcohol Poisoning

Symptoms

The symptoms of IPA poisoning vary by the type and extent of poisoning. Sometimes, the symptoms may not appear for several hours.

The symptoms of IPA poisoning include:

  • dizziness
  • low blood pressure
  • stomach pain
  • nausea
  • rapid heart rate, or tachycardia
  • low body temperature
  • slurred speech
  • slow breathing
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • unresponsive reflexes
  • throat pain or burning
  • coma

Causes of Isopropyl Alcohol Poisoning

Causes

Your body can handle small amounts of isopropyl alcohol. In fact, your kidneys remove approximately 20 to 50 percent of IPA from your body. The rest is broken down into acetone by enzymes known as alcohol dehydrogenases. This acetone is filtered out of your body through the lungs or kidneys.

However, when you ingest more IPA than your body can manage, poisoning can occur. IPA is also readily absorbed through the skin, so spilling large amounts of IPA on the skin may cause accidental poisoning.

The uses of isopropyl alcohol that may lead to poisoning include intoxication and suicide:

  • IPA can make people feel drunk, so some people buy products containing IPA and drink them on purpose.
  • IPA is the main ingredient in many household cleaning products. Since these products are easily available, some people may choose to drink them when they want to commit suicide.

People who take antidepressants may get IPA poisoning more easily than others. Certain antidepressants increase the effects of IPA, so even a small amount can be poisonous. A class of antidepressants called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) can cause a particularly dangerous reaction.

Children are also more prone to IPA poisoning. They often chew on objects and drink products that they find around the house. This is why it’s important to put anything containing IPA out of the reach of children.

Diagnosing Isopropyl Alcohol Poisoning

Diagnosis

Your doctor will perform a physical exam so they can check your vital signs and look for signs of IPA exposure, such as skin damage.

During the exam, your doctor may ask you the following questions:

  • How did the poisoning occur? Did you drink the product or did you spill it on yourself?
  • What was the source? What specific product did you ingest?
  • What was the intent? Was it taken on purpose?
  • What medications are you taking? Was there ethyl alcohol in the product?

Your doctor may also order the following blood tests to help make a diagnosis:

  • a complete blood count (CBC) to look for signs of infection or damage to your blood cells
  • a serum electrolyte level to see if you’re dehydrated
  • a toxicity panel to determine the concentration of IPA in your blood

In some cases, your doctor may run an electrocardiogram (EKG) to assess your heart function.

Treating Isopropyl Alcohol Poisoning

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to remove the alcohol from your body and to keep your organs working properly. Treatment for IPA poisoning can include:

  • dialysis, which removes IPA and acetone from the blood
  • fluid replacement, which may be used if you’re dehydrated
  • oxygen therapy, which allows your lungs to get rid of IPA more quickly

Preventing IPA Poisoning

Prevention

To prevent poisoning, avoid swallowing any products containing IPA. Among other things, this includes:

  • most household cleaning products
  • paint thinners
  • rubbing alcohol
  • perfumes

Keep these items out of the reach of children.

It’s also important to wear gloves when using certain products with IPA, such as cleaning products. People who work in laboratories or factories that use IPA should be particularly cautious as well. Spilling large amounts of IPA on the skin can lead to poisoning.

What Do I Do If I Have Isopropyl Alcohol Poisoning?

Warning

You should never induce vomiting because this can further damage your esophagus. However, there are steps you should take when you or someone you know has IPA poisoning:

  • Drink plenty of water. This can help your body flush out the toxin. However, you shouldn’t do this if you have symptoms that make it difficult to swallow, such as throat pain or decreased alertness.
  • If the chemical is on the skin or eyes, rinse the area with water for 15 minutes.
  • Call 911 or go to the emergency room immediately.

For more information or direction, call the American Association of Poison Control Centers. The national hotline number is (800) 222-1222. You can also visit their website at www.aapcc.org

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