Heart Disease Prevention

Written by Tricia Kinman | Published on September 4, 2014
Medically Reviewed by Brenda B. Spriggs, MD, MPH, MBA on September 4, 2014

Learn 6 tips for preventing heart disease including: quitting smoking, good nutrition, exercising, and reducing stress and high blood pressure.

Heart Disease Prevention

Heart disease is a debilitating condition for many Americans. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it’s the leading cause of death in the United States. Certain risk factors make some individuals more likely to have heart disease. Risk factors fall into two categories. modifiable risk factors are ones you can control such as weight. non-modifiable risk factors are ones you can’t control, like genetics.

The good news is that your choices can influence your heart health. Through lifestyle changes like smoking cessation, healthy eating, exercise, and managing diabetes, blood pressure and stress, you can greatly reduce your chance of heart disease.

Smoking Cessation

The most crucial step you can take to lower your risk of heart disease is to quit smoking. Smoking is one of the leading risk factors for coronary heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. Smoking causes a buildup of a fatty substance (plaque) in the arteries, which eventually leads to a hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Smoking damages organs and worsens many other risk factors for heart disease. It  reduces your amount of good cholesterol (HDL) and raises blood pressure, which can cause increased stress on your arteries.

Smoking cessation has been proven to reduce heart disease. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, many states have begun programs to limit or reduce smoking in the general population. In the states where smoking reduction programs have been successful, there’s been a decrease in hospitalizations for heart disease.

The effects of quitting smoking are quite sudden. Your blood pressure will decrease, your circulation will improve, and your oxygen supply will increase. These changes will boost your energy level and make exercise easier. Over time, your body will begin to heal itself. After  one year of being smoke-free, your risk for heart disease will be reduced by 50 percent. In addition to quitting smoking, you should avoid others who smoke, as secondhand smoke can also negatively impact your health.

Nutrition and Diet

Nutrition and diet play a huge role in preventing heart disease. According to the Mayo Clinic, research suggests that even if you have a family history or genetic predisposition for heart disease, maintaining a good diet can reduce your risk. Most research has shown that a diet high in raw fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and omega-3 fatty acids (often found in fish) helps prevent heart disease. The Mediterranean-style diet in particular is known to reduce the occurrence of heart disease. Along with increased servings of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and fish twice a week, the Mediterranean-style diet focuses on the use of olive oil (healthy fat) and herbs, consuming nuts, and limiting red meat to one or  two times a month.

To maintain a healthy diet, you’ll also need to avoid or limit some foods that worsen heart disease. This includes foods with high amounts of sugar and salt, alcoholic beverages, and foods with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. Don’t forget that watching calories is important, too. Know how many calories per day you should be getting and focus on eating a variety of foods that are high in nutrients and low in calories.

Exercise and Weight Loss Management

Exercise and maintaining a healthy weight are also vital to lowering your blood pressure and preventing heart disease. According to the Mayo Clinic, experts recommend getting at least 30 minutes of exercise a day, or 30 to 60 minutes of exercise most days of the week. Exercise doesn’t have to be intensive. Simple activities like walking your dog, cleaning your house, or performing yard work count as exercise. The key is to stay active.

The ultimate goal of exercising is to maintain a healthy weight. You have to balance your caloric intake with the amount of exercise you get. Find out what your body mass index (BMI) is to set weight loss goals. By maintaining a healthy weight, you’ll lower your blood pressure and reduce your risk for other complications.

Managing Diabetes

Diabetes is a serious risk factor for heart disease. It has harmful effects on multiple organs in the body when left untreated and can lead to peripheral artery disease, stroke, and other complications. If you have diabetes, manage your condition to prevent heart disease.

Prevention includes regular checkups with your health care provider, eating a healthy diet, and exercising. Diabetes is managed with medications in some cases. By choosing a healthy lifestyle, you can limit the effects of diabetes and reduce your risk of heart disease.

Lowering Your Blood Pressure

High blood pressure (hypertension) can cause increased stress on your cardiovascular system and contribute to heart disease. You can lower your blood pressure through diet, exercise, weight management, and avoiding stress and smoking. One of the best ways to lower blood pressure is to limit your salt intake and alcohol consumption.

If you know you have high blood pressure, work closely with your health care provider and monitor your blood pressure on a regular basis. Take all  medications your provider prescribes for your blood pressure and take them as directed. High blood pressure is difficult to detect, so if you’re unsure whether or not you have it, consult your doctor.

Managing Stress

Stress affects everyone in different ways. Though it’s not well understood, there’s a link between people who experience high amounts of stress over long periods of time and heart disease. Stress can cause sleep loss, pain and headaches, and can exhaust the body. Chronic stress can cause the heart to work harder. This will worsen any other risk factors for heart disease you may have.

There are many stress-reducing habits you can adopt that will help improve your overall health.  Physical activity or exercise is one way of reducing stress. Slowing down and performing relaxation exercises or breathing techniques, such as used  in yoga, are also helpful. Letting go of worries and spending more time with family and friends also contribute to a healthier, more relaxed lifestyle. It’s also important to get enough sleep.


Although the diagnosis of heart disease is frightening, there are many lifestyle choices you can make to help prevent this disease. Quitting smoking, nutrition, exercising, and reducing stress and high blood pressure can have a significant impact on preventing heart disease. 

Was this article helpful? Yes No

Thank you.

Your message has been sent.

We're sorry, an error occurred.

We are unable to collect your feedback at this time. However, your feedback is important to us. Please try again later.

Show Sources

  • Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations. (n.d.). www.heart.org. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/Diet-and-Lifestyle-Recommendations_UCM_305855_Article
  • Dilley, J. A., Harris, J. R., Boysun, M. J., & Reid, T. R. (2012). Program, Policy, and Price Interventions for Tobacco Control: Quantifying the Return on Investment of a State Tobacco Control Program. American Journal of Public Health, 102(2), e22-8. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from the CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.
  • FAQs About Stress. (n.d.). www.heart.org. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/StressManagement/HowDoesStressAffectYou/FAQs-About-Stress_UCM_307982_Article.jsp
  • Hannah, G., Nikolaos, S., L, S. R., Wright, C. B., Yian, G., T, D. R., et al. (2011). Mediterranean-style diet and risk of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death: the Northern Manhattan Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94(6), 1458-64 (37 ref). Retrieved February 23, 2012, from the CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension): Lifestyle and home remedies - MayoClinic.com. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/high-blood-pressure/DS00100/DSECTION=lifestyle-and-home-remedieshttp://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-management/MY00435/DSECTION=relaxation-techniques
  • Losing Weight. (2011, June 21). www.heart.org. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/WeightManagement/LosingWeight/Losing-Weight_UCM_307904_Article.jsp   
  • Mediterranean diet for heart health - MayoClinic.com. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mediterranean-diet/CL00011   
  • Reid, R. D., Mullen, K. A., & Pipe, A. L. (2011). Systematic approaches to smoking cessation in the cardiac setting. Current Opinion in Cardiology, 26(5), 443-8.
  • Staff. (2012). Fruit and veggie diet may offset genetic risk for heart disease. Harvard Heart Letter, 22(6), 6. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from the CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.

Read This Next

The Best Heart Disease Blogs of the Year
The Best Heart Disease Blogs of the Year
These heart disease blogs contain the best the Web has to offer on everything from medical advice to heart-friendly dinner menus.