Treatments for gout are designed to either to reduce the pain and inflammation of individual attacks or to reduce the frequency of attacks.
Adjusting your diet is the most important way to reduce the number of acute gout attacks you experience. The goal of these changes is to lower blood levels of uric acid. The following changes can reduce gout symptoms:
- Reduce or eliminate alcohol consumption
- Drink lots of water or other non-alcoholic fluids
- Increase consumption of low- or non-fat dairy products
- Avoid high-purine foods, including organ meats like kidneys, liver, and sweetbreads; oily fish like sardines, anchovies, and herring; certain vegetables including asparagus and cauliflower; beans; and mushrooms
- Limit meat consumption in favor of plant-based proteins like beans and legumes
- Consume complex carbohydrates, such as whole-grain breads, fruits, and vegetables, rather than sugary sweets and refined carbohydrates like white bread
There are many classes of drugs used to treat gout.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and colchicine all reduce the pain and inflammation associated with an acute gout attack.
- Xanthine oxidase inhibitors reduce the amount of uric acid produced by the body.
- Probenecid improves the kidneys' ability to remove uric acid from the blood