Gout Treatment and Prevention

Gout Traditional Treatments

Treatments for gout are designed to either reduce the pain and inflammation of individual attacks or to reduce the frequency of attacks.

Diet Modification

Adjusting your diet is one of the most important ways to reduce the number of acute gout attacks you experience. The goal of these changes is to lower blood levels of uric acid. The following changes can reduce gout symptoms.

  • Reduce or eliminate alcohol consumption.
  • Drink lots of water or other non-alcoholic fluids.
  • Increase consumption of low- or non-fat dairy products.
  • Avoid high-purine foods, including organ meats like kidneys, liver, and sweetbreads; oily fish like sardines, anchovies, and herring; certain vegetables including asparagus and cauliflower; beans; and mushrooms.
  • Limit meat consumption in favor of plant-based proteins like beans and legumes.
  • Consume complex carbohydrates, such as whole-grain breads, fruits, and vegetables, rather than sugary sweets and refined carbohydrates like white bread.


There are many classes of drugs used to treat gout.

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and colchicine all reduce the pain and inflammation associated with an acute gout attack.
  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitors like allopurinol reduce the amount of uric acid produced by the body.
  • Probenecid improves the kidneys' ability to remove uric acid from the blood

Gout Drugs

During an acute gout attack, the main priority of drug treatment is to reduce pain and inflammation. There are three categories of drugs used for this.


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a large class of drugs that reduce both pain and inflammation. Many NSAIDs are available over-the-counter at low doses and at higher doses by prescription. NSAIDs can cause gastrointestinal side effects, such as nausea, diarrhea, and stomach ulcers. In rare cases, they can cause kidney or liver damage. NSAIDs commonly used for gout include:

  • aspirin
  • celecoxib (Celebrex)
  • ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
  • indomethacin (Indocin)
  • ketoprofen (Orudis, Oruvail)
  • naproxen (Aleve)


Colchicine (Colcrys) is a drug whose main use is to treat gout. It prevents uric acid in the body from forming urate crystals. Taken very soon after the onset of acute gout symptoms, it can effectively prevent pain and swelling. It’s also sometimes prescribed for daily use to prevent future attacks. However, colchicine also causes side effects including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It’s usually prescribed to patients who cannot take NSAIDs.


Corticosteroids are very effective at reducing inflammation. They can be taken orally or injected directly into the affected joint. Unfortunately, they have serious side effects when used for long periods including:

For this reason, they are generally used only in patients who cannot take NSAIDs or colchicine. Corticosteroids used for gout include:

  • dexamethasone
  • methylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol)
  • prednisolone
  • prednisone
  • triamcinolone (aristospan)

The following two types of drugs are taken daily to help prevent future gout attacks.

Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors

Xanthine oxidase inhibitors reduce the amount of uric acid produced by the body. However, these drugs can actually trigger an acute gout attack when a person starts taking them. For this reason, patients are commonly prescribed a short course of colchicine when starting a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Side effects of these drugs include rash and nausea. There are two main xanthine oxidase inhibitors used for gout.

  • allopurinol (Aloprim, Lopurin, Zyloprim)
  • febuxostat (Uloric)


Probenecid (Probalan) is a drug that helps the kidneys remove uric acid from the blood more effectively. Side effects include rash, upset stomach, and kidney stones.

Gout Alternative Treatments

Alternative treatments for gout seek either to reduce pain during attacks or to lower uric acid levels and potentially prevent attacks. Like with many alternative treatments for any disease or condition, opinions are often mixed as to the efficacy of some treatment methods. Research is often minimal in comparison to traditional medical treatments for gout.

However many people have had success in using alternative treatments in the management of many diseases and conditions, including gout. Before trying any gout alternative treatments, you should always check with your doctor to be sure that the methods are safe and right for you.

Foods, Herbs, & Supplements

The following have shown at least some promise for gout.

Coffee: According to the Mayo Clinic, there’s evidence that drinking four to six cups of coffee a day can lower gout risk in men.

Antioxidant-Rich Fruits: Dark-colored fruits like blackberries, blueberries, grapes, raspberries, and especially cherries can help keep uric acid under control.

Vitamin C: Consuming moderate amounts of vitamin C is also connected to lower uric acid levels. However, very large doses of the vitamin can actually raise uric acid levels.

Other Supplements: There are also herbal supplements that have been found to effectively reduce inflammation including devil's claw, bromelain, and turmeric. These haven’t been specifically studied for gout, but they may help with the swelling and pain associated with an attack.


This technique from traditional Chinese medicine of placing very thin needles in points on the body has been found effective in treating different types of chronic pain. There haven’t yet been any studies done on acupuncture and gout, but its pain-relieving properties are promising.

Hot & Cold Compress

Switching between hot compress to the affected area for three minutes and a cold compress for 30 seconds can help reduce pain and swelling that occurs during a gout attack.

Gout Prevention

In most people, a first acute gout attack comes without warning, and there really aren't any other symptoms of high uric acid. Therefore, prevention efforts for gout are focused on preventing future attacks or lessening their severity.


Xanthine oxidase inhibitors and probenecid both prevent gout attacks by reducing the amount of uric acid in the blood. A doctor may also prescribe an NSAID or colchicine to be taken every day to help make future attacks less painful.

Dietary Changes

Careful monitoring of diet can also help to reduce uric acid levels. Your doctor can help you create a specific plan, but some of the most common changes are as follows:

  • drink more water and other non-alcoholic fluids
  • drink less alcohol
  • eat less meat
  • limit high-purine foods, including organ meats, oily fish, and certain vegetables
  • eat more low-fat dairy foods

Maintain a Healthy Weight

In addition, dietary changes may also have the goal of reducing body weight. Obesity is a risk factor for gout. Maintaining a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular exercise can help prevent attacks.

Read Video Transcript »

Video: Gout Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Gout is a condition caused by a build-up of uric acid that can affect a variety of joints, including the feet, ankles and knees. Its trademark pain point is typically the big toe.

Unfortunately, symptoms of gout often come suddenly, producing intense pain that can disrupt your life. These episodes are known as flares, and people often describe the pain as if their joints are on fire. Ignoring the painful symptoms of gout can lead to further problems, such as arthritis and damage to the affected joints. Uric acid crystals can also collect, typically on joint surfaces and are called tophi. These typically affect the hands, feet, wrists, ankles, and ears, and can be sites for painful inflammation during a flare.

Fortunately, people who are diagnosed early and actively treat their condition can live normal, full lives. Gout is diagnosed by measuring the levels of uric acid in the blood, as well as a physical examination of your joints.

Two different types of medications—preventative and anti-inflammatory—have proven to be effective to reduce the painful symptoms of a flare, as well as prevent other complications in the future. Preventative medications, such as selective uric acid re-absorption inhibitors, reduce uric acid buildup in the body, while anti-inflammatory medications work to calm the swelling and inflammation during a flare. These may include common over-the-counter medications, but your doctor may prescribe medication that’s more effective and tailored to at managing the symptoms of gout.

While there is no cure yet, new treatments are being developed to be used in conjunction with existing gout medications. A rheumatologist, a doctor who specializes in treating diseases of the joints and connective tissue, can help you discover new therapies for your gout.

Diet also plays an important role for gout patients, as certain foods can trigger a flare. Uric acid is created when your body breaks down an organic substance known as purines.

Foods that are especially rich with purines include organ meats, fish, seafood, whole grains, beer, certain vegetables, and sugars. While it may be difficult to adhere to a purine-free diet, avoiding foods high in purines can help keep acid levels down and prevent a painful flare.

Besides flares, gout is also associated with other health conditions, such as kidney disease, heart disease, and vision impairments. Managing gout symptoms also helps prevent these and other harmful health outcomes.

Avoiding foods high in proteins, taking preventative and anti-inflammatory medication, and communicating with your doctor are three very important steps to managing your condition. If you’d like to learn more about treating gout, take a look at the information we have here at Healthline or make an appointment with your doctor.