The term drug allergy refers to a group of symptoms caused by allergic reaction to a drug. Many drugs have side effects such as stomach upset or headache; however, these symptoms do not indicate an allergic reaction. As with other allergies, the symptoms may cause only mild discomfort, or they may be severe and even life threatening.
During an allergic reaction, you may have one or more of the following symptoms:
- skin rash
- itching of skin or eyes
- facial swelling
- joint aches or swelling
- tender lymph nodes
- shortness of breath
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic reaction. Anaphylaxis symptoms include:
- tightening of the throat that causes breathing difficulty
- extremely low blood pressure
- weak, rapid pulse
- swelling of the lips, mouth, or eyelids
- abdominal pain
- nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
- dizziness or lightheadedness
- palpitations (sensation of rapid or fluttering heartbeat)
In many cases, a drug allergy will not be apparent the first time you use a particular drug. In fact, you may use a drug several times without any reaction. However, when an allergy develops, the symptoms will usually appear soon after you take the drug. Anaphylaxis symptoms usually begin within moments of taking the drug.
You should contact your doctor any time you experience an unexpected symptom from a drug. If you experience mild allergic symptoms, you can usually treat them by stopping the drug; however you should still consult with your doctor to rule out other possible causes for your symptoms. If you are able to see your doctor while you are experiencing the reaction, it may help your doctor confirm the cause of your symptoms and also determine the best course of treatment, or to find a substitute drug.
If you experience any severe symptoms from a drug, you should seek emergency medical care immediately. Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening condition. Symptoms of a serious reaction include:
- swelling or tightening of the throat
- rapid pulse
- loss of consciousness