Cuts and scratches are areas of damage on the surface of the skin. A cut is a line of damage that can go through the skin and into the muscle tissues below. A scratch is surface damage that does not penetrate the lower tissues.
Cuts and scratches may bleed or turn red. Some cuts and scratches become infected. Some leave scars.
A cut is usually the result of an encounter with a sharp object, such as a knife or a razor blade. Cuts may also come from objects with thin edges, like a piece of paper or a thin cardboard box.
A scratch may be caused by an encounter with an abrasive surface, such as sand paper, unfinished wood, or concrete. Wounds from animals are often classified as scratches, such as a cat scratch caused by a cat's claws.
Cuts and scratches can happen to anyone. People are more likely to get cuts if they are in a combative situation or if they use sharp objects. Scratches are usually accidental.
Children are more susceptible to cuts and scratches than adults because they are more active and less in control of their growing bodies.
The symptoms of cuts and scratches include:
- redness or swelling around the wound
- pain or irritation at the skin surface
A cut or scratch is visible on the skin's surface. Some small cuts, like paper cuts, require sharp eyes or magnifying glasses to see.
There are several ways to treat cuts and scratches, depending on their severity. If the skin is kept clean, many cuts and scratches heal on their own. To accelerate that healing process, patients can choose from the following methods:
Over-the-counter and prescription medications are available for wound care. Many people use antibiotic ointment to prevent infection of a cut or scratch. Pain relievers may reduce irritation and control inflammation around the wound. Some topical creams may be prescribed to prevent swelling.
If a cut results in a large open wound, it may require stitches in order to heal. If the cut becomes infected beyond repair, the area of infection may have to be removed.
Pressure on the cut or scratch can stop the bleeding. Covering the wound with a bandage will keep it clean and allow for direct application of antibiotic ointment. The bandage will also absorb any blood that remains as the wound heals. Before the bandage is applied, the wound should be cleaned with water, ethyl alcohol, or hydrogen peroxide.
A tetanus booster shot is sometimes recommended after a cut.
Most cuts and scratches go away over time, but some lead to scars and infections. If a wound becomes infected, it must be treated in order to avoid serious damage. A severely infected wound may require amputation. In rare cases, an infected wound can be fatal.
To prevent cuts and scratches, avoid dangerous activities and interactions with sharp or coarse surfaces. Wear clothing to protect your arms, legs, and core, and be aware of your environment. If you do get a cut or scratch, clean and treat it immediately to prevent infection.