According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 50 million American adults (one in five) have been diagnosed with arthritis. Arthritis is a major cause of disability in the United States. Left untreated, it can cause:
- chronic pain
- limb deformities
- impaired range of motion
These symptoms can seriously disrupt everyday life. Learning how to live with arthritis can be difficult. However, it is usually possible to manage the symptoms and improve your quality of life.
Treatments for arthritis will depend on:
- the type of arthritis
- your personal health needs
- severity of pain
- other symptoms associated with the arthritis
Living a healthy life might help to reduce your risk of developing certain types of arthritis. It can also reduce the severity of your symptoms. For example, being overweight or obese increases the pressure on your joints. It may also contribute to generalized inflammation that can increase arthritis symptoms.
Healthy lifestyle changes are often the first steps in managing arthritis symptoms. You should try to:
- improve your sleep
- exercise regularly
- eat a low-fat, high-fiber diet
Exercise may be particularly useful in helping with arthritis symptoms. Low-impact exercise has been shown to:
- improve joint mobility
- relieve stiffness
- reduce pain and fatigue
- strengthen muscles and bones
“Staying in motion actually helps to keep pain away,” says Dr. Moshe Lewis, MD, MPH. Exercise, such as brisk walking, is critical in treating pain and stiffness associated with arthritis. It extends the life of your joints.
Applying cold and heat to inflamed joints may help with arthritis pain, although research is inconsistent.
Ice helps to restrict blood vessels. This reduces fluid in the tissue and decreases swelling and pain. Wrap ice in a towel and apply to the aching area for up to 20 minutes. You can ice your joints several times a day.
Heat treatments can be applied in the same way. Use a hot water bottle or heating pad and apply it to the swelling. Heat opens the blood vessels and increases circulation. This brings nutrients and proteins essential to repairing the compromised tissue.
Heat and ice treatments can be used in combination. Talk to your doctor about what might work best for you.
Over-the-counter (OTC) medications can help with minor pain and swelling associated with arthritis.
The most common types of OTC pain relievers are acetaminophen (Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Types of NSAIDs include:
- aspirin (Bayer Asprin)
- ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Nuprin)
- naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn)
Acetaminophen only relieves pain. NSAIDs relieve pain and can also reduce the swelling associated with certain types of arthritis.
Topical creams can also help treat arthritis symptoms. These creams are applied directly to painful areas. They may contain active ingredients such as menthol (Bengay, Stopain) or capsaicin (Capzasin, Zostrix).
Sometimes, OTC painkillers are not strong enough to treat your arthritis pain. If this is the case, your doctor may suggest prescription options.
Prescription NSAIDs work to reduce swelling and pain, although they have not been definitively proven more effective than OTC NSAIDs for this purpose. This class of drugs includes:
- celecoxib (Celebrex)
- piroxicam (Feldene),
- nabumetone (Relafen)
- prescription-strength ibuprofen and naproxen
Tramadol (Ultram) is a prescription painkiller. It may cause fewer side effects than NSAIDs. While tramadol is not exactly a narcotic, it still has significant potential for abuse like narcotics.
Strong painkillers can provide relief from severe pain. These include:
- meperidine (Demerol)
- oxycodone (OxyContin)
- propoxyphene (Darvon)
While these medications will reduce the pain symptoms of arthritis, they will not modify the course of the disease. They can also be addictive and should be used with caution.
Disease Modifying Drugs
A class of medications known as disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) can be used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory-types of arthritis. Unlike NSAIDs and painkillers, these drugs can actually change the course of your disease. However, DMARDS work more slowly than painkillers. It can take weeks or months to see an improvement.
Examples of DMARDs include:
- azathioprine (Imuran)
- biologics (Actemra)
- cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
- cyclosporine (Neoral)
- hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil)
- methotrexate (Rheumatrex)
TNF-alpha inhibitors are a subtype of DMARDs. They also can modify the course of rheumatoid arthritis. These include:
- etanercept (Enbrel)
- infliximab (Remicade)
- adalimumab (Humira)
- certolizumab pegol (Cimzia),
Each DMARD has its own sets of side effects. Discuss them with your doctor before deciding on a treatment.
These injections use a corticosteroid to reduce swelling. They can relieve pain in arthritic joints, but they can also accelerate bone loss if used repeatedly.
Trigger Point Injections
Injections can be used to relieve pain in areas of muscle that contain “trigger points.” Trigger points occur when muscles bind together and don’t relax. Trigger point injections can be used to treat muscle pain in the arms, legs, or back.
Trigger point injections contain an aesthetic, and sometimes a steroid. They often provide relief for several weeks or months at a time. However, some research suggests these injections may be no more effective than simply sticking a needle into the trigger point.
Physical therapy can help:
- improve muscle strength
- increase the range of motion of joints
- reduce pain
A physical therapist can also help you develop an exercise regimen that will fit your needs. In addition, he or she can help you find supportive devices such as splints, braces, or shoe inserts.
These devices can provide support to weakened joints. They can also take pressure off injured bones and reduce overall pain.
Severe cases of arthritis may require surgery to replace or repair damaged joints. Types of surgery used to treat arthritis include:
- joint replacement
- bone realignment
- bone fusion
- arthroscopic surgery
Several types of complementary therapy may help with arthritis pain. The efficacy of these treatments varies among individual patients. Consult your primary care physician before starting any new treatment. It is important to find out whether the treatment will be safe for you.
Acupuncture and acupressure are traditional Chinese medicine techniques. They relieve pain by stimulating the skin at key points. This prompts the body to release endorphins. It may also block messages of pain from being delivered to the brain.
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
TENS applies a small electric current to specific nerves. This current is believed to interrupt pain signals and lead to endorphin release.
Herbs & Supplements
There are many herbal supplements that have purported anti-inflammatory properties. According to the Arthritis Foundation, many studies have suggested that capsaicin can help fight arthritic pain. This is the natural chemical that gives chili peppers their heat. It’s used in several topical arthritis treatments.
Turmeric& is another healthy spice that has been used to reduce inflammation for hundreds of years.
There is also some evidence that some other natural remedies may help with arthritis pain, including:
- vitamin C
- fish oil
- glucosamine and chondroitin
- cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa)
- avocado soybean unsaponifiables
Clinical evidence for these supplements is mixed. However, some people find them helpful. In addition, some of these supplements — such as fish oil and vitamin C — provide other health benefits unrelated to arthritis. However, it is important to exercise caution when taking supplements. Just because a product is natural does not mean it’s safe. The contents of supplements are not verified by the FDA.
You should always consult your doctor before taking any supplement. Some supplements can interact with medications or cause health problems.