Chapped, or cracked, lips is the term commonly used to describe dry lips. Chapped lips can be caused by a number of factors, including the weather, excessive licking of the lips, and certain medications.
Chapped lips is a very common condition that occurs only on occasion for most people. However, some may develop a more severe form of chapped lips called cheilitis. Cheilitis, which can be caused by an infection, is characterized by cracked skin at the corners of the lips.
Dry lips are usually reversible with simple treatment and preventive measures. If your lips continue to be severely dry and cracked, consider making an appointment with a dermatologist.
Common symptoms of chapped lips include lip:
Lips don’t contain oil glands like other parts of the skin. For this reason, the lips are more susceptible to drying out and becoming chapped (cracked). Lack of moisture can make the problem worse, whether it is weather-induced or related to a lack of self-care. Lack of humidity in the air during the winter months is known to cause chapped lips. Frequent sun exposure in the summer can also worsen your condition.
Another common cause of chapped lips is habitual licking. Saliva from the tongue can further strip the lips of moisture, causing more dryness.
Chapped lips can occur in people of all ages and genders, particularly if they have dry skin.
Taking certain medications can also increase your risk of developing chapped lips, including:
- vitamin A
- retinoids (Retin-A, Differin)
- lithium (commonly used to treat manic depression)
- chemotherapy drugs
Severe dryness and cracking that doesn’t improve with self-care measures may be cause to see a dermatologist. Cheilitis is often to blame for severely chapped lips. This is a condition marked by cracked skin at the mouth corners, as well as several cracks on your lips.
If you have this condition, your lips may:
- be dark pink or red in color
- have a lumpy texture
- develop ulcers
- have white plaques on the surface
Cheilitis is most commonly attributed to infections and inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease. Dental trauma and excessive saliva production may also turn a regular case of chapped lips into cheilitis. According to the American Academy of Dermatology, cheilitis is most common in patients over the age of 59 (American Academy of Dermatology).
A dermatologist can determine whether your dry lips are simply chapped or if you have cheilitis.
Dehydration and Malnutrition
Dry lips can also be caused by dehydration or malnutrition.
Dehydration causes symptoms such as lightheadedness, constipation, decreased urine production, dry mouth, and headache. In severe cases, an individual may experience low blood pressure, fever, and/or rapid breathing or a rapid heartbeat.
Malnutrition is characterized by many of the same symptoms as dehydration, but can also cause muscle weakness, decaying teeth, a bloated stomach, and bone fragility. Malnutrition can be caused by vitamin deficiencies, so those on limited diets (vegetarians, for example) need to ensure that they are getting enough of the vitamins they need.
Alcoholics, in particular, are more susceptible to malnutrition due to vitamin deficiencies because excessive alcohol use can interfere with the vitamin absorption. Older adults are also at higher risk for malnutrition because decreased appetite is common among the elderly.
If you suspect that you are dehydrated or malnourished, see your doctor immediately.
Chapped lips can usually be treated at home. The first step is to make sure that your lips have ample amounts of moisture. This can be accomplished by:
- applying lip balm throughout the day, as needed
- drinking more water
- using a humidifier in the home
- avoiding cold weather conditions or wrapping your mouth with a scarf
Sun exposure can also cause chapped lips, especially as you age. Apply a lip balm that contains a minimum SPF of 15 before heading outdoors. The balm itself helps to moisturize the lips, while the sunscreen minimizes further drying effects.