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Spriggs, MD, MPH, FACP</a> </p> <div class="hl-widget-sharebar c"></div> <div class="sharebarContainer"><a class="link-sharebar" href="#overlaySharebar" id="sharebarLink" rel="#overlaySharebar"></a></div> </header> <nav class="hl-tab-navigation"> <div class="hl-arrow-tabnav hl-left-arrow-tabnav hl-icon-left-arrow"></div> <div class="hl-lpipe-tabnav"></div> <div class="hl-tabs-tabnav"> <ul> <li><a href="#Overview"> Overview</a></li> <li><a href="#Causes"> Causes</a></li> <li><a href="#Symptoms"> Symptoms </a></li> <li><a href="#Diagnosis"> Diagnosis</a></li> <li><a href="#Treatment"> Treatment</a></li> <li><a href="#Outlook"> Outlook</a></li> </ul></div> <div class="hl-rpipe-tabnav"></div> <div class="hl-arrow-tabnav hl-right-arrow-tabnav hl-icon-right-arrow"></div> </nav> <div class="grid648"> <div class="container-article" itemscope="" itemtype=""> <article class="hl-article-toc"> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_1"><a name="Overview"></a>What Is a Malignant Neoplasm of the Ureter? </h2><div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_1"> <p>The tube that connects the kidneys to the bladder is known as the <strong>ureter</strong>. Most healthy people have two kidneys and, therefor, two ureters. The top of each ureter is found in the middle of the kidney in an area known as the <strong>renal pelvis</strong>. Urine collects in the renal pelvis and is drained by the ureter into the bladder. </p><p> The renal pelvis and the ureter are lined with specific types of cells called <strong>transitional cells</strong>. These cells are able to bend and stretch without breaking apart. When cancer develops in the renal pelvis or ureter, it begins in the transitional cells.</p><p> This type of cancer is known as malignant neoplasm of the ureter. It is more commonly called transitional cell cancer. Neoplasm is another word for tumor or cancer.</p><p> In many instances, transitional cell cancer metastasizes. <strong>Metastasis </strong>occurs when cancer from one organ or part of the body spreads to another organ or part of the body. </p> </div> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_2"><a name="Causes"></a>What Causes Transitional Cell Cancer? </h2> <div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_2"> <p>Transitional cell cancer is extremely rare. The causes of the disease have not been fully identified. However, genetic factors have been noted to cause the disease in some patients. </p> <p>Other potential risk factors for the development of this type of cancer include:</p> <ul> <li>abuse of certain pain medications or over-the-counter medications for long periods of time, primarily phenacetin, which has not been sold in the U.S. since 1983 (Colin et al., 2009)</li> <li>people who worked in the chemical industry and plastics industry, as well as people exposed to coal, tar, and asphalt (Colin et al., 2009)</li> <li>smoking</li> </ul> </div> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_3"><a name="Symptoms"></a>Recognizing Potential Signs of Transitional Cell Cancer </h2> <div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_3"> <p>In the early stages of the disease, malignant cancer of the ureter has no symptoms. However, as the tumor grows, certain symptoms may appear. These include:</p> <ul> <li>blood in the urine</li> <li>persistent pain in the back</li> <li>fatigue</li> <li>unexplained weight loss</li> <li>painful or frequent urination</li> </ul> <p>While these symptoms are associated with malignant cancer of the ureter, they are also associated with other health conditions. Consult with your doctor to confirm the diagnosis if you experience these symptoms.</p> </div> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_4"><a name="Diagnosis"></a>How Is Transitional Cell Cancer Diagnosed? </h2> <div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_4"> <p>This type of cancer can be difficult to diagnose. Your doctor will initially complete a physical exam to check for signs of the disease. He or she will order a urinalysis to check your urine for blood, protein, and bacteria. Based on the results of these tests, your doctor may order additional tests to evaluate the inside of the bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis. </p><p> Additional tests may include:</p> <ul> <li>a uteroscopy to check for abnormalities in the ureter and renal pelvis</li> <li>an intravenous pyelogram (IVP) to evaluate the flow of fluid from the kidneys to the bladder</li> <li>a CT scan of the kidneys and bladder</li> <li>an ultrasound of the abdomen</li> <li>an MRI</li> <li>a biopsy of cells from the renal pelvis or ureter</li> </ul> </div> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_5"><a name="Treatment"></a>How Is Transitional Cell Cancer Treated? </h2> <div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_5"> <h3>Proven Treatment Options</h3> <p>Current treatments for malignant neoplasm of the ureter include:</p> <p><strong>Nephroureterectomy</strong>: This procedure involves the removal of the kidney, ureter, and bladder tissue.</p> <p><strong>Segmental resection</strong>: This procedure involves the removal of the part of the ureter that contains the cancer.</p> <h3>Clinical Trials</h3> <p>Clinical trials are new therapies that are currently being tested for treatment of a disease. Clinical trials for the treatment of malignant neoplasm of the ureter include:</p> <p><strong>Fulguration</strong>: This is a surgical procedure that destroys cancer cells with an electrical current.</p> <p><strong>Segmental resection of the renal pelvis</strong>: This procedure involves the removal of the part of the renal pelvis that contains the cancer.</p><p> <strong>Laser surgery</strong>: Laser surgery uses laser beams to target the cancer and destroy cancer cells.</p><p> <strong>Chemotherapy</strong>: Chemotherapy is standard treatment for many types of cancers. Chemotherapy drugs are now being developed to treat malignant neoplasm of the ureter.</p><p> <strong>Regional biological therapy</strong>: This therapeutic approach uses biological agents to target the cancer cells in the ureter.</p> </div> <h2 class="content_head" id="TOC_TITLE_HDR_6"><a name="Outlook"></a>What Is the Outlook for this Type of Cancer? </h2> <div class="content_body" id="TOC_TITLE_6"> <p>The outlook for someone diagnosed with malignant cancer of the ureter depends upon a number of different factors. In particular, the chance of recovery is determined by:</p> <h3>Stage of the Cancer</h3> <p>Patients with advanced stages of the disease will have a lower survival rate even with treatment.</p> <h3>Location of the Tumor</h3> <p>If the tumor is located in the renal pelvis, the cancer may quickly metastasize to the kidney, reducing chances for survival.</p> <h3>Overall Kidney Health</h3> <p>Patients with underlying kidney disorders will have a lower rate of survival even with treatment.</p> <h3>Cancer Recurrence</h3> <p>if malignant neoplasm of the ureter is treated and recurs, the patient will have a lower survival rate</p> <h3>Metastasization</h3> <p>If the cancer has spread to other organs in the body, the patient will have a lower survival rate</p> </div></article> <div class="span12 box-share-help-feedback"> <div class="span5"> <div class="box-article-helpful"> <div class="box-helpful-question"> Was this article helpful? <span class="helpful-option-yes">Yes</span> <span class="helpful-option-no">No</span> </div> <div class="box-helpful-confirmation"></div> </div> </div> <div class="span3"> <div class="box-link-feedback"> <span class="icon-email"></span> <a class="link-feedback" href="#feedbackOverlay" id="feedbackLink" rel="#feedbackOverlay">Feedback?</a> </div> <div class="overlay-simple overlay-feedback" id="feedbackOverlay"> <div class="overlay-content"> <div class="box-form-feedback" id="feedbackformdiv"> <form action="/v2/widgetemail" id="feedbackform"> <input name="to" type="hidden" value="hrl"></input> <input id="urlfield" name="urlfield" type="hidden" value=""></input> <h2>Send us your feedback</h2> <p class="box-message">We are unable to respond directly to questions, but your feedback is greatly appreciated, and will be taken into account in our ongoing review of our Health Reference Library.<br/></p> <p> <label>Your Name:</label><br/> <input class="field-name" id="nametext" name="nametext" placeholder="Name Here" type="text"></input> <span class="box-msg-error" id="box-msg-name"><span class="icon-error">✖</span> <span id="errorMsgName">Please enter your name</span></span> </p> <p> <label>Your Email:</label><br/> <input class="field-email-address" id="feedbackemail" name="emailaddress" placeholder="" type="email"></input> <span class="box-msg-error" id="box-msg-email"><span class="icon-error">✖</span> <span id="errorMsgEmail">Please enter your email</span></span> </p> <p> <input id="copy" name="copy" type="checkbox"></input> <label>Send me a copy</label> </p> <p class="box-textarea"> <textarea class="field-message" cols="60" id="feedbacktextarea" name="messagetext" rows="4"></textarea> </p> <div class="textarea-char-count" id="charcount">0</div> <p class="box-buttons"> <button class="btn-cancel" name="feedbackcancelbutton" type="button">Cancel</button> <button class="btn-send-msg">Send Message</button> <span class="box-loading"><img alt="" src="/resources/base/images/ajax-loader.gif"/></span> </p> </form> <p class="box-privacy"><span class="icon-lock"></span> Email addresses will not be shared with 3rd parties. See <a href="" target="_blank">privacy policy</a></p> </div> <div class="box-thankyou" id="thankyou"> <h2><span class="icon-green-checkmark"></span> Thank you.</h2> <p>Your message has been sent.</p> </div> <div class="box-submit-error" id="submissionerror"> <h2>We're sorry, an error occurred.</h2> <p>We are unable to collect your feedback at this time. However, your feedback is important to us. Please try again later.</p> </div> </div><div class="overlay-footer"> <div class="overlay-close">Close</div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row12 hl-article-references"> <div class="span8"> <div class="box-article-source "> <p class="references-title">Article Sources:</p> <div class="basesources"> <ul> <li>Colin P et al. (Nov 2009). Environmental factors involved in carcinogenesis of urothelial cell carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. <em>British Journal of Urology International</em>, <em>104(10),</em> 1436-40.</li> <li>General Information About Transitional Cell Cancer of the Ureter and Renal Pelvis. (2012, April 13). National Cancer Institute. Retrieved June 13, 2012, from <a href=""></a> </li> <li>Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter. (n.d.). The Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved June 13, 2012, from <a href=""></a> </li> <li>Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter. (n.d.). NYU Langone Medical Center.Retrieved June 13, 2012, from </li> </ul></div> <div class="morebox"> <div id="moresources" style="display:none"> <ul class="morelist"></ul> </div> <a href="#" id="showmoresources">Show all</a> </div> </div><!-- end of article source block --> </div><!-- article source span --> <div class="span4"> <div class="box-hrl-logo-src"> <div class="hrl-logo"></div> </div> </div><!-- hrl logo span --> </div><!-- row12 --> <div class="toc-content-promotion"> <!--hl-linking-ignore-start--> <div class="overlay-content-promotion"> <div class="content-promotion-header"> <div class="triangle"></div> <div class="content-promotion-title"> <p class="content-promotion-title-text">More on Healthline</p> </div> <div class="content-promotion-close"><a class="link-close-overlay-content-promotion" href="#"></a></div> </div> <div class="content-promotion-stories"> <div class="content-promotion-story click-link" data="/health-slideshow/famous-athletes-with-asthma"> <div class="content-promotion-title">Famous Athletes with Asthma</div> <div class="content-promotion-image"> <a href="" title="Famous Athletes with Asthma"><img alt="Famous Athletes with Asthma" src="/hlcmsresource/images/slideshow/Famous-athletes-with-asthma/194x105_Famous_Athletes_With_Asthma_1.jpg"/></a> </div> <div class="content-promotion-text"> <div class="content-promotion-disclaimer">Asthma shouldn’t be a barrier to staying active and fit. 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Learn more in this slideshow.</div> <div class="content-promotion-link summary-action"> <a href="" title="Numbness, Muscle Pain and Other RA Symptoms"> Read More <span> »</span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="content-promotion-story click-link" data="/health-slideshow/common-asthma-triggers-how-to-avoid"> <div class="content-promotion-title">Common Asthma Triggers and How to Avoid Them</div> <div class="content-promotion-image"> <a href="" title="Common Asthma Triggers and How to Avoid Them"><img alt="Common Asthma Triggers and How to Avoid Them" src="/hlcmsresource/images/slideshow/Common-asthma-triggers-how-to-avoid/194x105_Asthma_Triggers_1.jpg"/></a> </div> <div class="content-promotion-text"> <div class="content-promotion-disclaimer">Learn about some of the most common triggers for asthma, as well as measures you can take to minimize your risk of exposure, symptoms, and flares.</div> <div class="content-promotion-link summary-action"> <a href="" title="Common Asthma Triggers and How to Avoid Them"> Read More <span> »</span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="content-promotion-story click-link" data="/health-slideshow/top-iphone-android-multiple-sclerosis-apps"> <div class="content-promotion-title">The Best Multiple Sclerosis iPhone and Android Apps of the Year</div> <div class="content-promotion-image"> <a href="" title="The Best Multiple Sclerosis iPhone and Android Apps of the Year"><img alt="The Best Multiple Sclerosis iPhone and Android Apps of the Year" src="/hlcmsresource/images/slideshow/best-ms-apps/194x105_Best_MS_Apps_2014.jpg"/></a> </div> <div class="content-promotion-text"> <div class="content-promotion-disclaimer">These best multiple sclerosis apps provide helpful information and tools to keep track of your symptoms, including medication reminders.</div> <div class="content-promotion-link summary-action"> <a href="" title="The Best Multiple Sclerosis iPhone and Android Apps of the Year"> Read More <span> »</span></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <!--hl-linking-ignore-end--> </div> </div></div> <div class="grid300"> <div class="mr1block c"> <div class="box-ad-mr1"> <div class="ads-margin ads-box-header">Advertisement</div> <div class="ads-medium-rect"> <div id="DFPAD_MR" style="position:relative"> <iframe frameborder="0" id="ifrmmr1" name="ifrmmr1" scrolling="no" src="" style="width:300px;height:250px;margin-top:0px;margin-left:0;border:0;overflow:hidden;position:absolute;top:0;left:0"></iframe> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mr2block c"> <div class="ads-margin ads-box-header">Advertisement</div> <div class="ads-box" id="ad-anchor"> <div class="ads-medium-rect ads-margin"> <iframe class="ifrmmr2" frameborder="0" id="ifrmmr2" name="ifrmmr2" scrolling="no" src=""></iframe> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <!-- Healthline Pencil Ad: hidePencilAdv NOT empty AND false --> <div class="ad-pb"> <div class="ads-box-header-pb" id="ads-box-header-pb">Advertisement</div> <div class="dfp-pb-wrapper"> <div class="dfp-pb"> <div id="DFPAD_PB" style="position:relative"> <iframe frameborder="0" id="ifrmpb" name="ifrmpb" scrolling="no" src="" style="width:978px;height:25px;margin:0;border:0;overflow:hidden;position:absolute;top:0;left:0"></iframe> </div> </div> </div> </div> <!-- Begin comScore Tag --> <script> document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + (document.location.protocol == "https:" ? 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Healthline is for informational purposes and should not be considered medical advice, diagnosis or treatment recommendations. <a href="" rel="nofollow">Terms of Use</a> | <a href="" rel="nofollow">Privacy Policy</a></p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div><!-- hl-main-content --> </div><!-- hl-page --> <!-- Synvisc_HL_Survey --> <script type="text/javascript">// <![CDATA[ var ord = window.ord || Math.floor(Math.random() * 1e16); document.write('<script type="text/javascript" src=";sz=1x1;ord=' + ord + '?"><\/script>'); // ]]></script> <noscript> <a href=";sz=1x1;ord=[timestamp]?"> <img height="1" src=";sz=1x1;ord=[timestamp]?" width="1"/> </a> </noscript> <!-- Comscore Survey Script --> <script src="//"></script> <script> // are these global variables needed? // do they need to be global variables? microsoft_adunit_keywordhints = "Transitional Cell Cancer Malignant Neoplasm of Ureter "; u_microsoft_adunit_channelids = ""; microsoft_adunit_channelids = ""; // is this input field needed? document.write('<input id="msftChannelIds1" name="msftChannelIds1" type="hidden" value="'+microsoft_adunit_channelids+'">'); require(["jquery","base/dfpmanager","base/responsive-ads","matchmedia"],function($,AppDfpmanager,AppResponsiveAds){ // default - show LB ad on page load var isAdOnPageLoad = true; var breakpointsToHideAd = []; var breakpointsToHideAdByPageType = []; breakpointsToHideAdByPageType = ['768','600']; isAdOnPageLoad = AppResponsiveAds.getShowAdOnPageLoad("LB",breakpointsToHideAd,breakpointsToHideAdByPageType); var cfgDfpManager = { isAdOnPageLoad: isAdOnPageLoad, adshost : '', logged_in : 'false', dfpAdSite : '', btk1 : '', btk2 : '', kw : 'kidneycancer,transitional_cell_cancer,3814889', k1 : 'kidneycancer', k2 : 'cancer', k3 : 'health', pos : 'lb', ugc : 'false', ac : '', uac : '', akh : 'Transitional Cell Cancer Malignant Neoplasm of Ureter ', aks : '5000', env : '', msiteID : '', adTagPageUrl : encodeURIComponent('/health/cancer-renal-pelvis-or-ureter'), partner : 'www', pg_dart_site : '', pg_dart_zone : 'kidneycancer', pg_k2 : 'cancer', pHLID : '3814889', HLID : '3814889', visit_type : 'HCviewer', yeildex : 'true', targetsrc : '' }; AppDfpmanager.lbIframeInit(cfgDfpManager); }); </script> <script> require(["healthline/header"], function(header){ header.setOptions({ isNews: false, isNewsChecked: false }); }); </script> <script> require(["jquery"], function( $ ){ $(document).ready(function() { $( '#box-health-tools' ).on( 'click', 'a', function(){ if( $( this ).text() == 'Doctor Search' ){ _gaq.push( [ 'hl._link', $( this ).attr( 'href' ) ] ); return !window._gat; } return true; }); }); }); </script> <script> require([ "base/loading-mask" ], function( WidgetLoadingMask ){ WidgetLoadingMask.initialize(); }); </script> <script> require([ 'jquery', 'base/util/sharebar' ],function( $ ) { // todo: need to // - fix bug regarding HTML encoding, apostrophes, double quotes and question mark characters with page title data that is passed to facebook via the name parameter // - in FE, decode any HTML encoding in title data // - in FE, escape the page title data // - verify four uses cases: // - html encoding // - single quote // - double quote // - question mark $(document).ready(function() { var page_image; var customWidgets = new Array(); var stringWidget = "facebook,twitter,googleplus,email,print"; var isPrintFriendly = false; if( (typeof stringWidget) == "string" && stringWidget.length > 0) { customWidgets = stringWidget.split(','); } else{ customWidgets = stringWidget; } ShareBar.init({ iconSize: "medium", widgets: customWidgets, containerId: ".hl-widget-sharebar", facebookApiKey: "239371929577489", facebookRedirect: "", page_url: HLSHAREBAR.page_url, page_title: HLSHAREBAR.page_title, isPrintFriendly: isPrintFriendly, page_description: (HLSHAREBAR.page_description ? HLSHAREBAR.page_description : ''), email_page_url: HLSHAREBAR.email_page_url, email_page_title: HLSHAREBAR.email_page_title //page_image: page_image }); }); }); </script> <script> require([ "base/title-area", "base/overlay" ], function( WidgetTitleArea, AppOverlay ){ WidgetTitleArea.initialize(); var onBeforeLoadFunc = function() { $('.hl-main-content').css('z-index','auto'); }; var cfgOverlay = { maskColor: '#555555', maskLoadSpeed: 200, maskOpacity: 0.5, maskZindex: 9999999, top: "center", left: "center", close: ".overlay-close", onBeforeLoad: onBeforeLoadFunc }; AppOverlay.initialize( cfgOverlay ); }); require([ "base/rwd/title-area" ], function( WidgetTitleAreaResponsive ){ WidgetTitleAreaResponsive.initialize({ pubDateExists: true, medReviewDateExists: false, medReviewedBy: '', reviewDate: '' }); }); </script> <script> require([ "base/tab-navigation" ], function( WidgetTabNavigation ){ var promoTitle = "", partnerId = 28, adRefresh = false, cfg, sponsorDisclaimerOffset = 0, mr1RefreshTime = 4000; promoTitle = "More on Healthline"; partnerId = 28; adRefresh = true; if ( $( ".hl-sponsor-disclaimer" ).length ) { sponsorDisclaimerOffset = 78; } cfg = { promoTitle: promoTitle, partnerId: partnerId, contentPromoOffset: 70, sponsorDisclaimerOffset: sponsorDisclaimerOffset, adRefresh: adRefresh, mr1RefreshTime: mr1RefreshTime } WidgetTabNavigation.initialize(cfg); }); </script> <script> require(["jquery","base/overlay","base/feedback"],function($,AppOverlay){ var onBeforeLoadFunc = function() { $('.hl-main-content').css('z-index','auto'); $('#feedbackformdiv').show(); }; var cfgOverlay = { selectorValue: 'feedbackOverlay', maskColor: '#555555', maskLoadSpeed: 200, maskOpacity: 0.5, maskZindex: 9999999, top: "center", left: "center", close: ".overlay-close", onBeforeLoad: onBeforeLoadFunc }; AppOverlay.initialize(cfgOverlay); }); </script> <script> require(['jquery', 'base/content-promotion-widget'],function($, AppContentPromotion){ var config = { contentPromotionParam: '', platformPageType: 'articleTOC' }; AppContentPromotion.initialize(config); }); </script> <script> u_microsoft_adunit_channelids = "" microsoft_adunit_channelids = ""; document.write('<input id="msftChannelIds1" name="msftChannelIds1" type="hidden" value="'+microsoft_adunit_channelids+'">'); require(['jquery',"base/dfpmanager","base/responsive-ads","matchmedia"],function($,AppDfpmanager,AppResponsiveAds){ // determine if mr1 ad is shown on page load var isAdOnPageLoad = true; var breakpointsToHideAd = []; var breakpointsToHideAdByPageType = []; breakpointsToHideAdByPageType = ['768','600','480','320']; isAdOnPageLoad = AppResponsiveAds.getShowAdOnPageLoad("MR1",breakpointsToHideAd,breakpointsToHideAdByPageType); var cfgDfpManager = { isAdOnPageLoad: isAdOnPageLoad, adshost : '', adSize: '300x250', dfpAdSite : '', btk1 : '', btk2 : '', kw : 'kidneycancer,transitional_cell_cancer,3814889', k1 : 'kidneycancer', k2 : 'cancer', k3 : 'health', pos : 'mr1', ugc : 'false', ac : '', uac : '', akh : 'Transitional Cell Cancer Malignant Neoplasm of Ureter ', aks : '5000', env : '', msiteID : '', adTagPageUrl : encodeURIComponent('/health/cancer-renal-pelvis-or-ureter'), yeildex : 'true', targetsrc : '' }; var mr1timeout = setTimeout(function() { AppDfpmanager.mr1IframeInit(cfgDfpManager); }, 300); }); </script> <script> require(["jquery","base/dfpmanager","base/responsive-ads","matchmedia"],function($,AppDfpmanager,AppResponsiveAds){ $(function() { // determine if mr2 ad is shown on page load var isAdOnPageLoad = true; var breakpointsToHideAd = []; var breakpointsToHideAdByPageType = []; breakpointsToHideAd = ['997','768','600','480','320']; var isAdOnPageLoad = AppResponsiveAds.getShowAdOnPageLoad("MR2",breakpointsToHideAd,breakpointsToHideAdByPageType); var cfgDfpManager = { isAdOnPageLoad: isAdOnPageLoad, adshost : '', dfpAdSite : '', btk1 : '', btk2 : '', kw : 'kidneycancer,transitional_cell_cancer,3814889', k1 : 'kidneycancer', k2 : 'cancer', k3 : 'health', pos : 'mr2', ugc : 'false', ac : '', uac : '', env : '', msiteID : '', adTagPageUrl : encodeURIComponent('/health/cancer-renal-pelvis-or-ureter'), yeildex : 'true' , targetsrc : '' }; AppDfpmanager.mr2IframeInit(cfgDfpManager); }); // dom ready }); </script> <script> var rightRailNotSticky = false; rightRailNotSticky = false; require([ "base/article-toc" ], function( AppArticleToc ){ AppArticleToc.initialize({ isArticleHelpful: false, partnerId: 28, titleAreaTop: '60px', tabNavigationTop: '85px', rightRailNotSticky: rightRailNotSticky }); }); var isMsiteId = false; require([ "base/rwd/article-toc" ], function( AppArticleTocRwd ){ AppArticleTocRwd.initialize({ isMsiteId: isMsiteId, adRBTimeDelay: 300 }); }); require([ "base/rwd/sharebar-mobile" ], function( AppSharebarMobile ){ AppSharebarMobile.initialize(); }); require( ['jquery', 'matchmedia'], function( $ ) { $(function() { if( matchMedia('only screen and (max-width: 599px)').matches ) { var contentSectionsLength = $('.content_head').length; //add sharethrough ad div where the ad will be populated via the sharethrough javascript included above //after first section $( '<div data-str-native-key="47d89e59" style="display: none;"></div>' ).insertAfter( $( '#TOC_TITLE_1' ) ); //after last section $( '<div data-str-native-key="f66f2fdd" style="display: none;"></div>' ).insertAfter( $( '#TOC_TITLE_' + contentSectionsLength ) ); // if sharethrough library loaded, then boot up if( typeof STR === 'object' ) { STR.Tag.boot(); } } // test if phone breakpoint }); // dom ready }); // require call </script> <script> require(['jquery',"base/dfpmanager","base/responsive-ads","matchmedia"],function($,AppDfpmanager,AppResponsiveAds){ $(function() { // determine if pb ad is shown on page load var isAdOnPageLoad = true; var breakpointsToHideAd = []; var breakpointsToHideAdByPageType = []; breakpointsToHideAd = ['600','480','320']; var isAdOnPageLoad = AppResponsiveAds.getShowAdOnPageLoad("PB",breakpointsToHideAd,breakpointsToHideAdByPageType); var cfgDfpManager = { isAdOnPageLoad: isAdOnPageLoad, adshost : '', logged_in : 'false', dfpAdSite : '', btk1 : '', btk2 : '', kw : 'kidneycancer,transitional_cell_cancer,3814889', k1 : 'kidneycancer', k2 : 'cancer', k3 : 'health', pos : 'lb', ugc : 'false', ac : '', uac : '', akh : '', aks : '5000', env : '', msiteID : '', adTagPageUrl : encodeURIComponent('/health/cancer-renal-pelvis-or-ureter'), partner : 'healthline', pg_dart_site : '', pg_dart_zone : 'kidneycancer', pg_k2 : 'cancer', pHLID : '3814889', HLID : '3814889', visit_type : 'HCviewer', yeildex : 'true', targetsrc : '' }; var pbtimeout = setTimeout(function() { AppDfpmanager.pbIframeInit(cfgDfpManager); }, 300); }); // dom ready }); </script> <script> var HL_adBlankMonitor = function(cfg) { if(cfg.adBlankCodes.length > 0) { for(var i = 0; i < cfg.adBlankCodes.length; i++) { if (typeof HL_ga_sendTrackEvent === 'function') { HL_ga_sendTrackEvent({ gaEventCategory : 'Ad Display', gaEventAction : 'Blank Ad', gaEventLabel : 'adBlankCode=' + cfg.adBlankCodes[i] + '&adspot=' + cfg.adPosition + '&pageUrl=' + window.location.pathname }); } } } }; </script> <script> require([ 'healthline/newsletter-signup' ], function( newsletterSignup ){ newsletterSignup.setConfig({ newsletterHost: '' }); }); </script> <script> /* load module */ require(["healthline/footer"]); </script> >