ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
Treatment for ADHD: Are Natural Supplements and Vitamins Effective?
The Natural Path
If you or your child has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), you’ll want to use every possible tool at your disposal for easing symptoms.
Useful tools for ADHD include behavioral changes, medication, support from teachers, and parent education. Scientists are studying whether vitamins and natural supplements can help improve mental focus for ADHD patients.
Click through the slideshow to learn more about the role of supplements and vitamins in treating ADHD.
Essential Fatty Acids
Scientists launched a flurry of research from 2007 through 2011. This research set out to determine if essential fatty acids could help people with ADHD.
Their work drew the attention of J. Gordon Millichap and Michelle M. Yee. Millichap and Yee work with ADHD patients at Children’s Memorial Hospital in Chicago.
The pair performed a literature review for Pediatrics. In the research, they found a link between low levels of essential fatty acids in children and symptoms of ADHD.
A study of 117 children in England found that treatment with omega-3 and omega-6 supplements led to fewer ADHD symptoms. Essential fatty acids helped the students to focus better on reading and spelling and to behave better in the classroom.
Millichap and Yee note that not all the research papers they reviewed showed clear benefits. Nonetheless, they recommend omega-3 and -6 supplements in addition to medication.
Iron and Zinc Supplements
Millichap and Yee tested their Chicago patients to find out if low iron played a role in ADHD symptoms. However, they didn’t see significant differences in the severity of ADHD symptoms in patients with iron deficiency.
Their review of literature on zinc revealed that low zinc levels in the United States were linked with inattention. They did not find links with hyperactivity or impulsive behavior.
Low zinc levels are endemic in the Middle East. This may be a factor for children with ADHD who are from Turkey or Iran. Millichap and Yee recommend zinc supplements for treating Middle Eastern children when needed.
St. John’s Wort
Scientists at Bastyr University outside Seattle studied whether St. John’s wort could help children with ADHD. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) funded the study.
Scientists gave either St. John’s wort or a placebo to a volunteer group of 54 children. Symptoms improved in both groups of children. The researchers concluded that St. John’s wort had no apparent impact on inattentiveness and hyperactivity beyond that of a placebo.
Researchers at the University of Melbourne’s Department of Psychiatry took a similar look at medical literature. They zeroed in on herbal and nutritional products designed for patients with attention deficits.
Zinc, iron, French maritime bark (Pinus marinus), and Ningdong (a Chinese herbal formula) showed the strongest evidence for effectiveness.
Promising candidates for future research include the Western Pacific drink kava, as well as the Indian traditional medicine brahmi.
The Raine Study
A balanced, healthy diet may be especially important for people with ADHD. Millichap and Yee discuss the Raine study along these lines. This long-term study follows 3,000 mothers and children in Western Australia with two dietary patterns: either “Western” or “healthy.”
The “Western” diet links to ADHD diagnosis. It contains higher amounts of saturated and total fat, refined sugars, and salt. It’s also low in omega-3s, fiber, and folate, a B complex vitamin.
Value of a Healthy Diet
The “Western” or unhealthy diet may not be directly responsible for ADHD. However, it may reflect a family that is functioning poorly. Poor family function may lead the hyperactive child to crave snack foods rich in fat.
Alternately, it may reflect impulsiveness toward quick snacks when hungry, say Raine researchers. Instead, a healthy diet with fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and fish may provide needed omega-3s, folate, and fiber.
Talk with your doctor about your diet and if supplements or vitamins may be useful for you.
- Diet and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (2009, June 1). Harvard Health Publications. Retrieved December 5, 2013, from http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletters/Harvard_Mental_Health_Letter/2009/June/Diet-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
- Ehrlich, S. (2013, February 21). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved December 7, 2013, from http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
- Howard, A. (2010). ADHD is associated with a "Western" dietary pattern in adolescents. Journal of Attention Disorders, 15(5), 403-411. Retrieved December 7, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20631199
- Millichap, J. G. (2012). The Diet Factor in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Pediatrics, 129, 330-337. Retrieved December 7, 2013, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/2/330.full.pdf
- Richardson, A. J. (2005). The Oxford-Durham Study: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Of Dietary Supplementation With Fatty Acids In Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder. Pediatrics, 115(5), 1360-1366. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/115/5/1360.abstract
- Sarris, J., Kean, J., Schweitzer, I., & Lake, J. (2011). Complementary Medicines (herbal And Nutritional Products) In The Treatment Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review Of The Evidence. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 19(4), 216-227. Retrieved December 7, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21827936
- St. John's Wort Shows No Impact on the Symptoms of ADHD. (2008, June 11). National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved December 7, 2013, from http://nccam.nih.gov/research/results/spotlight/061008.htm?nav=gsa
- Western diet link to ADHD. (2010, July 29). Telethon Institute for Child Health Research. Retrieved December 7, 2013, from http://www.childhealthresearch.org.au/news-events/media-releases/2010/july/western-diet-link-to-adhd.aspx