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Healthline Connects

Viruses Behaving Badly

Filoviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in primates and humans. It was first recognized in 1967 in an outbreak in laboratories in Germany and Yugoslavia. Did you know Ebola killed 5,000 gorillas in central Africa in 2006?
Family: Filoviradae
Virus: Filovirus
1. Marburg virus
* Europe 1967: 31 cases, 7 deaths
* Africa 1975: 3 cases, 1 death
* DR Congo 1998-2000: 154 cases, 128 deaths
* Netherlands ex Uganda, 2008: 1 case, 1 death
2. Ebola virus
Subtypes:
1. Ivory Coast
* Ivory Coast, 1994: 1 case, 0 deaths
2. Sudan
* 1976: 285 cases, 151 deaths
3. Zaire
* DR Congo, 1976: 318 cases, 280 deaths
4. Reston
* VA, USA 1989: 0 cases - primates only (non-human)
5. New strain
* Uganda 2007: 149 cases, 37 deaths
Multiple outbreaks and many deaths due to Ebolavirus have occurred, in Africa, since the initial cases were reported in 1976. No wildlife reservoir for the virus has been found to date.

RNA viruses:
Family: Bunyaviradae

1. Hantavirus
* USA, 1993- 2007: Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HCPS): 465 cases, 168 deaths
* Paraguay 1995: 23 cases
* Argentina 1996: Andes virus, first person-to-person transmission * Chile 1997: 25 cases, person-to-person transmission
* Panama 1999: 11 cases, 3 deaths

*Korea, 1950's: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS): The classical, severe form of HFRS is characterized by fever, headache, abdominal and lumbar pain, proteinuria, hemorrhage, shock and renal failure and occurs in rural areas of Korea and China with Apodemus mice as reservoir hosts. A less severe form of HFRS occurs in urban areas with the house rat as the main reservoir host. Outbreaks of HFRS in humans involving infected laboratory rat colonies have occurred in several medical centers in various countries. Outbreaks have been reported in Yugoslavia, Greece, Croatia, Russia, Bulgaria.
2. Nairovirus;
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF):
transmitted by ticks and infected blood of febrile patients
* Crimea, 1940's: Congo, 1956.
* Pakistan 1976: 11 nosocomial infections from one infected patient (blood transmission)
* South Africa: 1981 7 cases (transmitted from infected cattle)
* Kosovo,Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan 2001: exact number of cases unknown
* Turkey, 2003: 1100 cases Mauritania 2003: 38 cases, 3 deaths.
* 2008- cases continue to be reported in Europe and South Africa.
3. Orthobunyavirus:
LaCrosse encephalitis: mosquito-borne viral disease attacking the central nervous system. Also transmitted by blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals/humans
* 1963 Wisconsin: about 75 cases annually in the US reported
4. Phlebovirus;
Rift Valley fever (RVFV):
mosquito-borne viral disease, also transmitted by blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals/humans and aerosol infection in the laboratory
* Mauritania, 1987: 200 deaths
* Saudi Arabia, 2000-2001: multiple cases
* Kenya, Tanzania, Somalia 2006-2007: fatalities


Noroviruses: cause nonbacterial gastroenteritis and are transmitted via contaminated food and water, as well as person to person.
* Increasingly, outbreaks on cruise ships and in hospitals and skilled nursing facilities have resulted in many cases and closures of facilities. Millions have been affected.





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