Indications for Doppler Flow Velocimetry During Pregnancy
Doppler flow velocimetry (DFV) is a noninvasive method to assess resistance to, and velocity of, blood flow using ultrasound technology. In pregnancy, it has been proven to be a valuable adjunct to fetal assessment because often DFV abnormalities will precede detectable fetal abnormalities of growth, amniotic fluid, and placental insufficiency and can help assess the severity of fetal compromise when these abnormalities are suspected.
The principles underlying the most common indications for DFV are as follows:
Under normal conditions, the placenta offers little resistance to fetal and maternal blood flow, even during diastole (i.e., between heart beats); and, there is no preferential blood flow to the brain as reflected in normally high resistance, especially from late midtrimester on, at the expense of perfusion of other organs...
Under abnormal conditions, blood flow to the placenta may be reduced and accompanied by increased resistance to perfusion (fetal and/or maternal) and/or there is preferential blood flow to preserve ‘essential’ organs such as the brain (‘brain-sparing effect’) as manifested by low resistance Doppler patterns to these organs and eventually reduced perfusion (fetal blood flow redistribution) of ‘nonessential’ organs such as the kidneys.
Some factors that lead to aberrations in DFV patterns include:
• Abnormalities in placentation or of the umbilical cord
• ‘Placental insufficiency’ regardless of fetal size
• Fetal anemia resulting from maternal isoimmunization, viral infection (e.g., parvovirus B19 and CMV), twin-twin transfusion syndrome, fetal-maternal hemorrhage…
• Chromosomal abnormalities
• Cardiac and intracranial malformations
When indicated, DFV evaluation of the following may contribute valuable information with regard evaluation of the pregnancy, but should be performed by individuals trained and experienced in the performance and interpretation of the results:
Middle cerebral arteries
Common indications for Doppler flow velocimetry studies include:
• Abnormalities of growth (both intrauterine growth restriction(IUGR) and excessive fetal growth (macrosomia)
• Fetal anomalies (e.g., cystic hygromas, cardiac, thoracic, diaphragmatic, neural tube, renal, and abdominal wall)
• Fetal hydrops
• Oligohydramnios (decreased fluid) and polyhydramnios (increased fluid)
• Poor OB history (e.g., preeclampsia, IUGR, previous stillborn…)
• Known maternal risk factors: hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, autoimmune disorders (overt and subclinical), thrombophilias (acquired and genetic)
• Abnormal maternal serum screening (e.g. elevated MSAFP and/or increased risk for fetal chromosomal abnormality)
• Multiple gestation
• Maternal trauma (fetal-maternal hemorrhage)
• Suspected placental abruption
• Known maternal isoimmunization
• Exposure to parvovirus B19
In recent years, DFV has become the primary means of screening related to fetal anemia. This is done by evaluating the peak systolic velocity (PSV) in the fetal middle cerebral artery. Its negative predictive value is so high that it has obviated the need for, and the expense of, repetitive invasive procedures when there is known maternal isoimmunization, Parvovirus B19 exposure, or other potential causes of severe fetal anemia such as trauma or placental abruption or placenta previa that might lead to fetal-maternal hemorrhage or fetal blood loss.
It is also the primary means of ruling out fetal anemia as a cause of hydrops fetalis and it is the mainstay in the assessment of multiple gestations as a means of screening and staging possible twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. DFV of the fetal ductus venosus in early pregnancy has also proven useful in the identification of fetuses at risk for chromosomal abnormalities and major congenital heart defects. DFV of the branch pulmonary arteries can help predict the risk of fetal pulmonary hypoplasia in cases of premature and prolonged rupture of membranes.
DFV is no longer considered ‘experimental’ and it has become a ‘standard of care’ in the hands of specialist in Maternal-Fetal Medicine for the evaluation and management of complicated pregnancies.