Is nicotine replacement therapy effective in the “real world”?

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Over a hundred double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trials have evaluated the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation, and the results are very clear: use of NRT almost doubles the smokers’ chances of successfully quitting. Five years ago, a paper published in the Journal of the American Medical Association by Professor John Pierce and colleagues claimed that since becoming available over-the-counter, NRT was no longer effective. This study was based on retrospective recall of quit attempts by respondents to a large survey in California. Many researchers questioned the validity of the findings, partly based on evidence that smokers are more likely to forget unaided failed quit attempts, and partly because smokers who choose to use NRT tend to be more addicted than those choosing to quit on their own, and the Pierce study was not able to adequately measure this.

Since then, a number of studies have been published that shed more light on this issue. A more recent study by the same research group found that use of a pharmacological aid (NRT or bupropion) is more effective than no aid in households with either no other smokers or a smoke-free policy. This result was an interesting demonstration of the interaction between effects of a medication and the environment in which it is used. It also suggests that effectiveness of NRT has little to do with whether it is prescribed by a doctor or purchased over the counter. However, this study still relied on retrospective recall and so some doubts about recall accuracy remain.

Further light was shed on this issue in a study by Miller and colleagues published in the Lancet in 2005. They reported on a large scale distribution of free nicotine patches (via a telephone quitline) to over 34,000 people in New York City. Six months later they followed up a randomly selected sample of participants, and also a sample of people who called the quitline but did not receive patches due to mailing errors. They found that 33% of those receiving patches had quit 6 months later, as compared with only 6% among those not receiving them. This suggests that nicotine patches are effective when used along with very low intensity support.

Very recently, Professor Robert West and Xiaolei Zhou have reported in the journal, Thorax, the results of a multinational prospective study of over 3,605 smokers attempting to quit. This study found that those using NRT were about twice as likely (8% vs 4%) to remain continuously abstinent six months later. This study, like the New York City patch study, supports the findings from randomized clinical trials and demonstrates that smokers making a self-initiated quit attempt without additional behavioral support are twice as likely to remain abstinent for at least six months if they use NRT as compared with trying without NRT. Nicotine replacement therapy is therefore an effective aid to smoking cessation in the “real world”.
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About the Author


MA, MAppSci, PhD

Dr. Jonathan Foulds is an expert in the field of tobacco addiction.

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