Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. In a total hysterectomy, the uterus and cervix are removed. In some cases, the fallopian tubes and ovaries are removed along with the uterus (called hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy). In a subtotal hysterectomy, only the uterus is removed. In a radical hysterectomy, the uterus, cervix, ovaries, oviducts, lymph nodes, and lymph channels are removed. The type of hysterectomy performed depends on the reason for the procedure. In all cases, menstruation stops and a woman loses the ability to bear children.
Hysterectomy is the second most common operation performed in the United States. About 556,000 of these surgeries are done annually. By age 60, approximately one out of every three American women will have had a hysterectomy. Yet it's estimated that 30 percent of hysterectomies are unnecessary.
About 10% of hysterectomies are performed to treat cancer of the cervix, ovaries, or uterus. Women with cancer in one or more of these organs almost always have the organ(s) removed as one part of their cancer treatment.
The most frequent reason for hysterectomy in the United States is to remove fibroid tumors, accounting for 30% of these surgeries. Fibroid tumors are non-cancerous (benign) growths in the uterus, which can cause pelvic and low back pain and heavy or lengthy menstrual periods. They occur in 30–40% of women over age 40, and are three times more likely to be present in African-American women than in Caucasian women. Fibroids do not need to be removed unless they are causing symptoms that interfere with a woman's normal activities.
Treatment of endometriosis is the reason for 20% of hysterectomies. The endometrium is the lining of the uterus. Endometriosis is a condition that occurs when the cells from the endometrium begin growing outside the uterus. The outlying endometrial cells respond to the hormones that control the menstrual cycle, bleeding each month the way the lining of the uterus does. This causes irritation of the surrounding tissue, leading to pain and scarring.
Another 20% percent of hysterectomies are done because of heavy or abnormal vaginal bleeding that can not be linked to any specific cause and cannot be controlled by other means. The remaining 20% of hysterectomies are performed to treat prolapsed uterus, pelvic inflammatory disease, and endometrial hyperplasia, a potentially precancerous condition.
There are several alternatives to hysterectomy today. They include:
Uterine artery embolization is not a surgical procedure. Instead, interventional radiologists put a catherter into the artery that leads to the uterus and inject polyvinyl alcohol particles right where the artery leads to the blood vessels that nourish the fibroids. By killing off those blood vessels, the fibroids have no more blood supply, and they die off. Severe cramping and pain after the procedure is common, but serious complications are less than .5 percent and it may protect fertility.
A myomectomy is a surgery used to remove fibroids, thus avoiding a hysterectomy. Hysteroscopic myomectomy, in which a surgical "telescope," or laparascope, is inserted into the uterus through the vagina
In this surgical procedure, recommended for women with small fibroids, the entire lining of the uterus is removed. Women are no longer fertile, however. The uterine cavity is filled with fluid and a hysteroscopy,or telescope, inserted to provide a clear view of the uterus. Then the uterus is destroyed using a laser beam or electric voltage. The procedure is typically done under anesthesia, although women can go home the same day as the surgery. Another, newer procedure involves using a balloon, which is filled with superheated liquid and inflated until it fills the uterus. The liquid kills the lining, and after 8 minutes the balloon is removed.
Like endometrial ablation, the uterine lining is also destroyed during this procedure, only instead of a laser, an electrosurgical wire loop is used.
A total hysterectomy, sometimes called a simple hysterectomy, removes the entire uterus and the cervix. The ovaries are not removed and continue to secrete hormones. Total hysterectomies are always performed in the case of uterine and cervical cancer. This is the most common kind of hysterectomy.
Sometimes, in addition to a total hysterectomy a procedure called a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is performed. This surgery removes the ovaries and the fallopian tubes. Removal of the ovaries eliminates the main source of the hormone estrogen, so menopause occurs immediately. Removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes is performed in about one-third of hysterectomy operations, often to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.
If the reason for the hysterectomy is to remove uterine fibroids, treat abnormal bleeding, or relieve pelvic
pain, it may be possible to remove only the uterus and leave the cervix. This procedure, called a subtotal hysterectomy (or partial hysterectomy), removes the least amount of tissue. The opening to the cervix is left in place. Some women feel that leaving the cervix intact aids in their achieving sexual satisfaction. This procedure, which used to be rare, is now performed more frequently when requested.
Subtotal hysterectomy is easier to perform than a total hysterectomy, but leaves a woman at risk for cervical cancer. She will still need to get yearly pap smears.
Radical hysterectomies are performed on women with cervical cancer or endometrial cancer that has spread to the cervix. A radical hysterectomy removes the uterus, cervix, top part of the vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, lymph nodes, lymph channels, and tissue in the pelvic cavity that surrounds the cervix. This type of hysterectomy removes the most tissue and requires the longest hospital stay and longer recovery period.
The frequency with which hysterectomies are performed in the United States has been questioned in recent years. It has been suggested that a large number of hysterectomies are performed unnecessarily. The United States has the highest rate of hysterectomies (number of hysterectomies per thousand women) of any country in the world. Also, the frequency of this surgery varies across different regions of the United States. Rates are highest in the South and Midwest, and are higher for African American women. In recent years, although the number of hysterectomies performed has declined, the number of hysterectomies performed on younger women in their 30s and 40s is increasing, and 55 percent of all hysterectomies are performed on women 35 to 49.
Women for whom a hysterectomy is recommended should discuss possible alternatives with their doctor and consider getting a second opinion, since this is major surgery with life-changing implications. Alternative treatments exist for many conditions. Whether these alternatives are appropriate for any individual woman is a decision she and her doctor should make together.
As in all major surgery, the health of the patient affects the risk of the operation. Women who have chronic heart or lung diseases, diabetes, or iron-deficiency anemia may not be good candidates for this operation. Heavy smoking, obesity, use of steroid drugs, and use of illicit drugs add to the surgical risk.
There are two ways that hysterectomies can be performed. The choice of method depends on the type of hysterectomy, the doctor's experience, and the reason for the hysterectomy.
About 75% of hysterectomies performed in the United States are abdominal hysterectomies. The surgeon makes a four to six inch incision either horizontally across the pubic hair line from hip bone to hip bone or vertically from navel to pubic bone. Horizontal incisions leave a less noticeable scar, but vertical incisions give the surgeon a better view of the abdominal cavity. The blood vessels, fallopian tubes, and ligaments are cut away from the uterus, which is lifted out.
Abdominal hysterectomies take from one to three hours. The hospital stay is three to five days, and it takes four to eight weeks to return to normal activities.
The advantages of an abdominal hysterectomy are that the uterus can be removed even if a woman has internal scarring (adhesions) from previous surgery or her fibroids are large. The surgeon has a good view of the abdominal cavity and more room to work. Also, surgeons have the most experience with this type of hysterectomy. The abdominal incision is more painful than with vaginal hysterectomy and the recovery period is longer.
With a vaginal hysterectomy, the surgeon makes an incision near the top of the vagina. The surgeon then reaches through this incision to cut and tie off the ligaments, blood vessels, and fallopian tubes. Once the uterus is cut free, it is removed through the vagina. The operation takes one to two hours. The hospital stay is usually one to three days, and return to normal activities takes about four weeks.
The advantages of this procedure are that it leaves no visible scar and is less painful. The disadvantage is that it is more difficult for the surgeon to see the uterus and surrounding tissue. This makes complications more common. Large fibroids cannot be removed using this technique. It is very difficult to remove the ovaries during a vaginal hysterectomy, so this approach may not be possible if the ovaries are involved.
Vaginal hysterectomy can also be performed using a laparoscopic technique. With this surgery, a tube containing a tiny camera is inserted through an incision in the navel. This allows the surgeon to see the uterus on a video monitor. The surgeon then inserts two slender instruments through small incisions in the abdomen and
This technique, called laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, allows surgeons to perform a vaginal hysterectomy that might be too difficult otherwise. The hospital stay is usually only one day. Recovery time is about two weeks. The disadvantage is that this operation is relatively new and requires great skill by the surgeon.
Any vaginal hysterectomy may have to be converted to an abdominal hysterectomy during surgery if complications develop.
Before surgery the doctor will order blood and urine tests. The woman may also meet with the anesthesiologist to evaluate any special conditions that might affect the administration of anesthesia. On the evening before the operation, the woman should eat a light dinner and then avoid eating or drinking anything.
After surgery a woman will feel pain. The degree of discomfort varies, and is generally greatest in abdominal hysterectomies because of the incision. Hospital stays vary from about two days (laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy) to five or six days (abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy). During the hospital stay, the doctor will probably order more blood tests.
Return to normal activities such as driving and working takes anywhere from two to eight weeks, again depending on the type of surgery. Some women have emotional changes following a hysterectomy. Women who have had their ovaries removed will probably start taking hormone replacement therapy.
Hysterectomy is a relatively safe operation, although like all major surgery it carries risks. These include unanticipated reaction to anesthesia, internal bleeding, blood clots, damage to other organs such as the bladder, and post-surgery infection. The risk of death is about one in every 1,000 (1/1,000) women having the operation.
Other complications sometimes reported after a hysterectomy include changes in sex drive, weight gain, constipation, and pelvic pain. Hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause can occur if the ovaries are removed. Women who have both ovaries removed and who do not take estrogen replacement therapy run an increased risk for heart disease and osteoporosis (a condition that causes bones to be brittle). Women with a history of psychological and emotional problems before the hysterectomy are more likely to experience psychological difficulties after the operation.
Although there is some concern that hysterectomies may be performed unnecessarily, there are many conditions for which the operation improves a woman's quality of life. In the Maine Woman's Health Study, 71% of women who had hysterectomies to correct moderate or severe painful symptoms reported feeling better mentally, physically, and sexually after the operation.
Carlson, Karen J., Stephanie A. Eisenstat, and Terra Ziporyn. "Hysterectomy." In The Harvard Guide to Women's Health, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996, pp. 308-313.
Griffith, H. Winter. "Hysterectomy." In The Complete Guide to Symptoms, Illness and Surgery, 3rd ed. New York: Berkeley Publishing, 1995, pp. 818-825.
American Cancer Society. (800) 227-2345. <http://www.cancer.org>.
National Cancer Institute. (800) 4-CANCER. <http://www.nci.nih.gov>.
Parker, William H. "A Gynecologist's Second Opinion." <http://www.gynsecondopinion.com>.
Cervix—The lower part of the uterus extending into the vagina.
Fallopian tubes—Slender tubes that carry eggs (ova) from the ovaries to the uterus.
Lymph nodes—Small, compact structures lying along the channels that carry lymph, a yellowish fluid. Lymph nodes produce white blood cells (lymphocytes), which are important in forming antibodies that fight disease.
Prolapsed uterus—A uterus that has slipped out of place, sometimes protruding down through the vagina.
Table Of Contents
- Endometrial ablation
- Endometrial resection
- Total hysterectomy
- Subtotal hysterectomy
- Radical hysterectomy
- Abdominal hysterectomy
- Vaginal hysterectomy
- Normal results
- KEY TERMS