"Foreign" means "originating elsewhere" or simply "outside the body." Foreign bodies typically become lodged in the eyes, ears, nose, airways, and rectum of human beings.
Both children and adults experience problems caused by foreign objects getting stuck in their bodies. Young children in particular are naturally curious and may intentionally put such shiny objects as coins or button batteries into their mouths. They are also prone to inserting objects in their ears and nostrils. Adults may accidentally swallow a non-food object or inhale a foreign body that gets stuck in the throat or lungs. Even if an object like a toothpick successfully passes through the esophagus and into the stomach, it can get stuck inside the rectum. Airborne particles can lodge in the eyes of people at any age.
Foreign bodies can be in hollow organs (like swallowed batteries) or in tissues (like bullets). They can be inert or irritating. If they irritate they will cause inflammation and scarring. They can bring infection with them or acquire it and protect it from the body's immune defenses. They can obstruct passageways either by their size or by the scarring they cause. Some foreign bodies can be toxic.
Small particles like sand may be removable without medical help, but if the object is not visible or cannot be retrieved, prompt emergency treatment is necessary. Trauma to the eyes can lead to loss of vision and should never be ignored. Before attempting any treatment, a person should move to a well-lighted area where the object can be more easily spotted. Hands should be washed, and only clean, preferably sterile, materials should make contact with the eyes. If the particle is small, it can be dislodged by blinking or pulling the upper lid over the lower lid and flushing out the speck. A clean cloth can also be used to pick out the offending particle. Afterwards, the eye should be rinsed with clean, lukewarm water or an ophthalmic wash.
If the foreign object cannot be removed at home, the eye should be lightly covered with sterile gauze to discourage rubbing. A physician will use a strong light and possibly special eyedrops to locate the object. Surgical tweezers can effectively remove many objects. An antibiotic sterile ointment and a patch may be prescribed. If the foreign body has penetrated the deeper layers of the eye, an ophthalmic surgeon will be consulted for emergency treatment.
Ears and nose
A number of ingenious extraction methods have been devised for removing foreign objects from the nose and ears. A bead in a nostril, for example, can often be popped out by blowing into the mouth while holding the other nostril closed. Skilled practitioners have removed peas from the ears by tiny improvised corkscrews. Marbles have been extracted by using cotton swabs and super glue. Tweezers often work well. Insects can be floated out of the ear by pouring warm (not hot) mineral oil, olive oil, or baby oil into the ear canal. Items that are lodged deep in the ear canal are more difficult to remove because of the possibility of damaging the ear drum. These require emergency treatment from a qualified physician.
Airway and stomach
At a certain age children will eat anything. A very partial list of items recovered from young stomachs includes the following: coins, chicken bones, fish bones, beads, rocks, plastic toys, pins, keys, round stones, marbles, nails, rings, batteries, ball bearings, screws, staples, washers, a heart pendant, a clothespin spring, and a toy soldier. Some of these items will pass completely through the digestive system to be excreted some time later. The progress of metal objects has been successfully followed with a metal detector. Others, like sharp bones, can get stuck and cause problems. Batteries are corrosive and must be removed immediately.
Children eat things and stick things into their bodily openings of their own volition. But they inhale them unwittingly. The most commonly inhaled item is probably a peanut. A crayon and a cockroach have been found in the windpipes (tracheas) of children. These items always cause symptoms (difficulty swallowing and spitting up saliva, for instance) and may elude detection for some time while a child is being treated for asthma or recurring pneumonia.
Adults are not exempt from unorthodox inedibles. Dental devices are commonly swallowed. Adults with mental illness or subversive motives may swallow such inappropriate objects as toothbrushes.
A rectal retractor can remove objects that a physician can feel during physical examination. Surgery may be required for objects deeply lodged within the rectum.
The symptoms of foreign bodies are as diverse as the objects and their locations. The most common manifestation of a foreign object anywhere in the body is infection. Even if an object entered in a sterile condition, bacteria still seem to find it and are able to hide from the body's defenses there. Blockage of passageways—breathing, digestive or excretory—is another result. Pain is common.
Airways and stomach
Mechanical obstruction of an airway, which commonly occurs when food gets lodged in the throat, can be treated by applying the Heimlich maneuver. If the object is lodged lower in the airway, a bronchoscope (a special instrument to view the airway and remove obstructions) can be inserted. On other occasions, as when an object is blocking the entrance to the stomach, a fiberoptic endoscope (an illuminated instrument that views the interior of a body cavity) may be used. A physician typically administers a sedative and anesthetizes the throat. The foreign object will then either be pulled out or pushed into the stomach, depending on whether or not the physician thinks it will pass through the digestive tract on its own. Objects in the digestive tract that are not irritating, sharp or large may be followed as they continue on through. Sterile objects that are causing no symptoms may be left in place. Surgical removal of an offending object is necessary only if it causes symptoms.
Once foreign objects are removed, persons have no further medical problems. If surgery is required (such as to remove a bullet), permanent damage may be sustained when the object initially enters the body. Once surgical incisions have healed, many persons have no further medical problems. Counseling may be needed to help persons cope with potential after-effects.
Health care team roles
First aid may be provided by trained persons. Emergency medical technicians may provide support while transporting people to a hospital or emergency treatment facility. Physicians remove most foreign objects. Surgeons may be needed to remove some objects from the eye (ophthalmologists), ears (otolaryngologists), gastrointestinal system (gastroenterologists), brain (neurosurgeons) or body tissues (general surgeons). Radiologists may document progress of an object through the body. Nurses supply supportive care and prevention education to the patient or family. Therapists may be needed to cope with such after-effects as physical impairment, mental distress or simple embarrassment.
Bronchoscope—An illuminated instrument that is inserted into the airway to inspect and retrieve objects from the bronchial tubes.
Conjunctivae—Mucous membranes around the inner surface of the eyelid.
Cornea—The rounded, transparent portion of the eye that covers the pupil and iris and lets light into the interior.
Endoscopy—The surgical use of long, thin instruments that have both viewing and operating capabilities.
Heimlich maneuver—An emergency procedure for removing a foreign object lodged in the airway that is preventing the person from breathing. To perform the Heimlich maneuver on a conscious adult, the rescuer stands behind the victim and encircles the choking person's waist. The rescuer makes a fist with one hand and places the other hand on top, positioned below the rib cage and above the waist. The rescuer then applies pressure by a series of upward and inward thrusts to force the foreign object back up the choking person's trachea.
Trachea—Windpipe. The tube that connects the pharynx with the lungs.
Using common sense and following safety precautions are the best ways to prevent foreign objects from entering the body. For instance, parents and grandparents should toddler-proof their homes, storing batteries in a locked cabinet and properly disposing of used batteries, so they are not in a location where curious preschoolers can retrieve them from a wastebasket. To minimize the chance of youngsters inhaling food, parents should not allow children to eat while walking or playing. Adults should chew food thoroughly and not talk while chewing. Foods should not be thrown up into the air and caught in an open mouth. Many eye injuries can be prevented by wearing safety glasses while using power tools.
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American Osteopathic College of Radiology. 119 East Second St., Milan, MO 63556. (660) 265-4011. Fax: (660) 265-3494. <http://www.aocr.org/>. email@example.com.
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L. Fleming Fallon, Jr., MD, DrPH