Amebiasis is an infectious disease caused by a parasitic one-celled microorganism (protozoan) called Entamoeba histolytica. Persons with amebiasis may experience a wide range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and cramps. The disease may also affect the intestines, liver, or other parts of the body.
Amebiasis, also known as amebic dysentery, is one of the most common parasitic diseases occurring in humans, with an estimated 500 million new cases each year. It occurs most frequently in tropical and subtropical areas where living conditions are crowded, with inadequate sanitation. Although most cases of amebiasis occur in persons who carry the disease but do not exhibit any symptoms (asymptomatic), as many as 100, 000 people die of amebiasis each year. In the United States, between 1 and 5% of the general population will develop amebiasis in any given year, while male homosexuals, migrant workers, institutionalized people, and recent immigrants develop amebiasis at a higher rate.
Human beings are the only known host of the amebiasis organism, and all groups of people, regardless of age or sex, can become affected. Amebiasis is primarily spread in food and water that has been contaminated by human feces but is also spread by person-to-person contact. The number of cases is typically limited, but regional outbreaks can occur in areas where human feces are used as fertilizer for crops, or in cities with water supplies contaminated with human feces.
Causes and symptoms
Recently, it has been discovered that persons with symptom-causing amebiasis are infected with Entamoeba histolytica, and those individuals who exhibit no symptoms are actually infected with an almost identical-looking ameba called Entamoeba dispar. During their life cycles, the amebas exist in two very different forms: the infective cyst or capsuled form, which cannot move but can survive outside the human body because of its protective covering, and the disease-producing form, the trophozoite, which although capable of moving, cannot survive once excreted in the feces and, therefore, cannot infect others. The disease is most commonly transmitted when a person eats food or drinks water containing E. histolytica cysts from human feces. In the digestive tract the cysts are transported to the intestine where the walls of the cysts are broken open by digestive secretions, releasing the mobile trophozoites. Once released within the intestine, the trophozoites multiply by feeding on intestinal bacteria or by invading the lining of the large intestine. Within the lining of the large intestine, the trophozoites secrete a substance that destroys intestinal tissue and creates a distinctive bottle-shaped sore (ulcer). The trophozoites may remain inside the intestine, in the intestinal wall, or may break through the intestinal wall and be carried by the blood to the liver, lungs, brain, or other organs. Trophozoites that remain in the intestines eventually form new cysts that are carried through the digestive tract and excreted in the feces. Under favorable temperature and humidity conditions, the cysts can survive in soil or water for weeks to months, ready to begin the cycle again.
Although 90% of cases of amebiasis in the United States are mild, pregnant women, children under two years of age, the elderly, malnourished individuals, and
The signs and symptoms of amebiasis vary according to the location and severity of the infection and are classified as follows:
Intestinal amebiasis can be subdivided into several categories:
ASYMPTOMATIC INFECTION. Most persons with amebiasis have no noticeable symptoms. Even though these individuals may not feel ill, they are still capable of infecting others by person-to-person contact or by contaminating food or water with cysts that others may ingest, for example, by preparing food with unwashed hands.
CHRONIC NON-DYSENTERIC INFECTION. Individuals may experience symptoms over a long period of time during a chronic amebiasis infection and experience recurrent episodes of diarrhea that last from one to four weeks and recur over a period of years. These patients may also suffer from abdominal cramps, fatigue, and weight loss.
AMEBIC DYSENTERY. In severe cases of intestinal amebiasis, the organism invades the lining of the intestine, producing sores (ulcers), bloody diarrhea, severe abdominal cramps, vomiting, chills, and fevers as high as 104-105°F (40-40.6°C). In addition, a case of acute amebic dysentery may cause complications, including inflammation of the appendix (appendicitis), a tear in the intestinal wall (perforation), or a sudden, severe inflammation of the colon (fulminating colitis).
AMEBOMA. An ameboma is a mass of tissue in the bowel that is formed by the amebiasis organism. It can result from either chronic intestinal infection or acute amebic dysentery. Amebomas may produce symptoms that mimic cancer or other intestinal diseases.
PERIANAL ULCERS. Intestinal amebiasis may produce skin infections in the area around the patient's anus (perianal). These ulcerated areas have a "punched-out" appearance and are painful to the touch.
Extraintestinal amebiasis accounts for approximately 10% of all reported amebiasis cases and includes all forms of the disease that affect other organs.
The most common form of extraintestinal amebiasis is amebic abscess of the liver. In the United States, amebic liver abscesses occur most frequently in young Hispanic adults. An amebic liver abscess can result from direct infection of the liver by E. histolytica or as a complication of intestinal amebiasis. Patients with an amebic abscess of the liver complain of pain in the chest or abdomen, fever, nausea, and tenderness on the right side directly above the liver.
Other forms of extraintestinal amebiasis, though rare, include infections of the lungs, chest cavity, brain, or genitals. These are extremely serious and have a relatively high mortality rate.
Diagnosis of amebiasis is complicated, partly because the disease can affect several areas of the body and can range from exhibiting few, if any, symptoms to being severe, or even life-threatening. In most cases, a physician will consider a diagnosis of amebiasis when a patient has a combination of symptoms, in particular, diarrhea and a possible history of recent exposure to amebiasis through travel, contact with infected persons, or anal intercourse.
It is vital to distinguish between amebiasis and another disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that produces similar symptoms because, if diagnosed incorrectly, drugs that are given to treat IBD can encourage the growth and spread of the amebiasis organism. Because of the serious consequences of misdiagnosis, potential cases of IBD must be confirmed with multiple stool samples and blood tests, and a procedure involving a visual inspection of the intestinal wall using a thin lighted, tubular instrument (sigmoidoscopy) to rule out amebiasis.
A diagnosis of amebiasis may be confirmed by one or more tests, depending on the location of the disease.
This test involves microscopically examining a stool sample for the presence of cysts and/or trophozoites of E. histolytica and not one of the many other intestinal amebas that are often found but that do not cause disease. A series of three stool tests is approximately 90% accurate in confirming a diagnosis of amebic dysentery. Unfortunately, however, the stool test is not useful in diagnosing amebomas or extraintestinal infections.
Sigmoidoscopy is a useful diagnostic procedure in which a thin, flexible, lighted instrument, called a sigmoidoscope, is used to visually examine the lower part of the large intestine for amebic ulcers and take tissue or fluid samples from the intestinal lining.
Although tests designed to detect a specific protein produced in response to amebiasis infection (antibody) are capable of detecting only about 10% of cases of mild amebiasis, these tests are extremely useful in confirming 95% of dysentery diagnoses and 98% of liver abscess diagnoses. Blood serum will usually test positive for antibody within a week of symptom onset. Blood testing, however, cannot always distinguish between a current or past infection since the antibodies may be detectable in the blood for as long as 10 years following initial infection.
A number of sophisticated imaging techniques, such as computed tomography scans (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound, can be used to determine whether a liver abscess is present. Once located, a physician may then use a fine needle to withdraw a sample of tissue to determine whether the abscess is indeed caused by an amebic infection.
Asymptomatic or mild cases of amebiasis may require no treatment. However, because of the potential for disease spread, amebiasis is generally treated with a medication to kill the disease-causing amebas. More severe cases of amebic dysentery are additionally treated by replacing lost fluid and blood. Patients with an amebic liver abscess will also require hospitalization and bed rest. For those cases of extraintestinal amebiasis, treatment can be complicated because different drugs may be required to eliminate the parasite, based on the location of the infection within the body. Drugs used to treat amebiasis, called amebicides, are divided into two categories:
Tissue amebicides are used to treat infections in the liver and other body tissues and include emetine, dehydroemetine, metronidazole, and chloroquine. Because these drugs have potentially serious side effects, patients given emetine or dehydroemetine require bed rest and heart monitoring. Chloroquine has been found to be the most useful drug for treating amebic liver abscess. Patients taking metronidazole must avoid alcohol because the drug-alcohol combination causes nausea, vomiting, and headache.
Most patients are given a combination of luminal and tissue amebicides over a treatment period of seven to ten days. Follow-up care includes periodic stool examinations beginning two to four weeks after the end of medication treatment to check the effectiveness of drug therapy.
The prognosis depends on the location of the infection and the patient's general health prior to infection. The prognosis is generally good, although the mortality rate is higher for patients with ameboma, perforation of the bowel, and liver infection. Patients who develop fulminant colitis have the most serious prognosis, with over 50% mortality.
There are no immunization procedures or medications that can be taken prior to potential exposure to prevent
Specific safeguards include the following:
- Purification of drinking water. Water can be purified by filtering, boiling, or treatment with iodine.
- Proper food handling. Measures include protecting food from contamination by flies, cooking food properly, washing one's hands after using the bathroom and before cooking or eating, and avoiding foods that cannot be cooked or peeled when traveling in countries with high rates of amebiasis.
- Careful disposal of human feces.
- Monitoring the contacts of amebiasis patients. The stools of family members and sexual partners of infected persons should be tested for the presence of cysts or trophozoites.
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Rebecca J. Frey
Ameboma—A mass of tissue that can develop on the wall of the colon in response to amebic infection.
Antibody—A specific protein produced by the immune system in response to a specific foreign protein or particle called an antigen.
Appendicitis—Condition characterized by the rapid inflammation of the appendix, a part of the intestine.
Asymptomatic—Persons who carry a disease and are usually capable of transmitting the disease but who do not exhibit symptoms of the disease are said to be asymptomatic.
Dysentery—Intestinal infection marked by diarrhea containing blood and mucus.
Fulminating colitis—A potentially fatal complication of amebic dysentery marked by sudden and severe inflammation of the intestinal lining, severe bleeding or hemorrhaging, and massive shedding of dead tissue.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)—Disease in which the lining of the intestine becomes inflamed.
Lumen—The inner cavity or canal of a tube-shaped organ, such as the bowel.
Protozoan—A single-celled, usually microscopic organism that is eukaryotic and, therefore, different from bacteria (prokaryotic).