Alcohol paralysis, or alcohol-related neurological disease, is an umbrella term for a wide variety of nervous system disorders that are directly caused by the ingestion of toxic amounts of alcohol.
These can be grouped into four categories:
- effects of acute alcohol intoxication
- withdrawl from alcohol
- diseases and neurological damage related to alcoholism
- fetal alcohol syndrome
Effects of acute intoxication
Alcohol, or ethanol, has long-demonstrated direct toxic effects on nerve and muscle cells. Depending on which nerve and muscle pathways are involved, alcohol can have far-reaching effects on different parts of the brain, peripheral nerves, and muscles. When a person drinks alcohol, it is absorbed by blood vessels in the stomach lining and flows rapidly throughout the body and brain. Ethanol freely crosses the blood-brain barrier that ordinarily keeps large molecules from escaping from the blood vessel to the brain tissue. Drunkenness, or intoxication, may occur at blood alcohol concentrations of as low as 50-150 mg per 100 milliliters (0.02-0.05 oz per qt) in what are usually called social drinkers. Sleepiness, stupor, coma, or even death from respiratory depression and low blood pressure occur at progressively higher concentrations.
Although alcohol is broken down by the liver, the toxic effects from a high dose of alcohol are most likely a direct result of alcohol itself rather than of its breakdown products. The fatal dose varies widely because people who drink heavily develop a tolerance to the effects of alcohol with repeated use. In addition, alcohol tolerance results in the need for higher levels of blood alcohol to achieve intoxicating effects, which increases the likelihood that habitual drinkers will be exposed to high and potentially toxic levels of ethanol. This is particularly true when binge drinkers fail to eat, because fasting decreases the rate of alcohol clearance and causes even higher blood alcohol levels.
Recent research indicates that alcohol's toxicity may be a component of violence and aggression. A National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) study showed that an estimated 86 percent of homicide offenders, 37 percent of assault offenders, 60 percent of sexual offenders, and 13 percent of child abusers were drinking at the time of the offense. Forty-two percent of violent crimes reported to police involved alcohol, and 51 percent of victims interviewed believed that the person who had assaulted them had been drinking.
A December 1999 NIAAA study suggests that because they absorb and metabolize alcohol differently than men, women may be more susceptible to its adverse effects. This was based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the brains of alcoholic women, compared with both non-alcoholic women and alcoholic men. Imaging showed that the brain regions involved in coordinating brain functions were markedly smaller in the alcoholic women than either of the other two groups.
Two separate studies, conducted in February and August of 2000, proposed and showed evidence that even early drinking can seriously affect memory. Researchers at Duke University and the University of California both found that adolescence, especially between the ages of 15 and 16, are important years in brain development, and this development is adversely affected by alcohol and drug use. It is as yet unknown whether such impairment is reversible.
When a chronic alcoholic suddenly stops drinking, withdrawal of alcohol leads to a syndrome of increased excitability of the central nervous system, called delirium tremens) or "DTs." Symptoms begin six to eight hours after abstinence, and are most pronounced 24-72 hours after abstinence. They include body shaking (tremulousness), insomnia, agitation, confusion, hearing voices or seeing images that are not really there (such as crawling bugs), seizures, rapid heart beat, profuse sweating, high blood pressure, and fever. Alcohol-related seizures are reported in approximately 15 percent of alcoholics, and the chance of having seizures, as well as the severity of the seizures, increases with the number of withdrawal incidences. In structural imaging, it was found that alcoholics that had had seizures showed shrinkage on both sides of the brain behind the frontal lobe.
Diseases and brain damage related to alcoholism
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is caused by deficiency of the B-vitamin thiamine, and can also be seen in people who don't drink but have some other cause of thiamine deficiency, such as chronic vomiting, that prevents the absorption of this vitamin. Patients with this condition have the sudden onset of Wernicke encephalopathy; the symptoms include marked confusion, delirium, disorientation, inattention, memory loss, and drowsiness. Examination reveals abnormalities of eye movement, including jerking of the eyes (nystagmus) and double vision. Problems with balance make walking difficult. People may have trouble coordinating their leg movements, but usually not their arms. If thiamine is not given promptly, Wernicke encephalopathy may progress to stupor, coma, and death.
If thiamine is given and death averted, Korsakoff's syndrome may develop in some patients, who suffer from memory impairment that leaves them unable to remember events for a period of a few years before the onset of illness (retrograde amnesia) and unable to learn new information (anterograde amnesia). Most patients have very limited insight into their memory dysfunction and have a tendency to make up explanations for events they have forgotten (confabulation).
Severe alcoholism can cause cerebellar degeneration, a slowly progressive condition affecting portions of the brain called the anterior and superior cerebellar vermis causing a wide-based gait, leg incoordination, and an inability to walk heel-to-toe in tightrope fashion. The gait disturbance usually develops over several weeks, but may be relatively mild for some time, and then suddenly worsen after binge drinking or an unrelated illness.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) occurs in infants born to alcoholic mothers when prenatal exposure to ethanol retards fetal growth and development. Alcohol is a known teratogen (an agent capable of causing physical abnormalities in developing fetuses) that affects both the infant's body and brain. It can cause this damage across the entire pregnancy, not just the first trimester. Affected infants often have a distinctive appearance with a thin
Up to three births of every thousand in the industrialized countries of the world will produce a child born with FAS. This condition is considered more apt to occur following continuous, heavy alcohol intake by the mother, but has also been seen following intermittent or binge drinking. A study by Dr. John W. Olney, of Washington University School of Medicine, found that because brain cells building the connections necessary for memory, learning and thought begin to develop in the sixth month in-utero, one brief (four-hour) drinking binge during that period of time can damage millions of developing cells.
Causes and symptoms
Acute excess intake of alcohol can cause drunkenness (intoxication) or even death, and chronic or long-term abuse leads to potentially irreversible damage to virtually any level of the nervous system. Any given patient with long-term alcohol abuse may have no neurologic complications, a single alcohol-related disease, or multiple conditions, depending upon the genes they have inherited, how well nourished they are, and other environmental factors, such as exposure to other drugs or toxins.
Neurologic complications of alcohol abuse may also result from nutritional deficiency, because alcoholics tend to eat poorly and may become depleted of thiamine or other vitamins important for nervous system function. Persons who are intoxicated are also at higher risk for head injury or for compression injuries of the peripheral nerves. Sudden changes in blood chemistry, especially sodium, related to alcohol abuse may cause central pontine myelinolysis, a condition of the brainstem in which nerves lose their myelin coating. Liver disease complicating alcoholic cirrhosis may cause dementia, delirium, and movement disorder.
Alcoholic myopathy, or weakness secondary to breakdown of muscle tissue, is also known as alcoholic rhabdomyolysis or alcoholic myoglobinuria. Males are affected by acute (sudden onset) alcoholic myopathy four times as often as females. Breakdown of muscle tissue (myonecrosis) can come on suddenly during binge drinking or in the first days of alcohol withdrawal. In its mildest form, this breakdown may cause no noticeable symptoms, but may be detected by a temporary elevation in blood levels of an enzyme found predominantly in muscle, called the MM fraction of creatine kinase.
The severe form of acute alcoholic myopathy is associated with the sudden onset of muscle pain, swelling, and weakness; a reddish tinge in the urine caused by myoglobin, a breakdown product of muscle excreted in the urine; and a rapid rise in muscle enzymes in the blood. Symptoms usually worsen over hours to a few days, and then improve over the next week to 10 days as the patient is withdrawn from alcohol. Muscle symptoms are usually generalized, but pain and swelling may selectively involve the calves or other muscle groups. The muscle breakdown of acute alcoholic myopathy may be worsened by crush injuries, which may occur when people drink so much that they compress a muscle group with their body weight for a long time without moving, or by withdrawal seizures with generalized muscle activity.
In patients who abuse alcohol over many years, chronic alcoholic myopathy may develop. Males and females are equally affected. Symptoms include painless weakness of the limb muscles closest to the trunk and the girdle muscles, including the thighs, hips, shoulders, and upper arms. This weakness develops gradually, over weeks or months, without symptoms of acute muscle injury. Muscle atrophy, or decreased bulk, may be striking. The nerves of the extremities may also begin to break down, a condition known as alcoholic peripheral neuropathy, which can add to the person's difficulty in moving. Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, too, typically develop slowly, over a period of months.
The way in which alcohol destroys muscle tissue is still not well understood. Proposed mechanisms include muscle membrane changes affecting the transport of calcium, potassium, or other minerals; impaired muscle energy metabolism; and impaired protein synthesis. Alcohol is metabolized (broken down) primarily by the liver, with a series of chemical reactions in which ethanol is converted to acetate. Acetate is metabolized by skeletal muscle, and alcohol-related changes in liver function may affect skeletal muscle metabolism, decreasing the amount of blood sugar available to muscles during prolonged activity. Because not enough sugar is available to supply needed energy, muscle protein may be broken down as an alternate energy source. However, toxic effects on muscle may be a direct result of alcohol itself rather than of its breakdown products.
Although alcoholic peripheral neuropathy may contribute to muscle weakness and atrophy by injuring the motor nerves controlling muscle movement, alcoholic neuropathy more commonly affects sensory fibers. Injury to these fibers can cause tingling or burning pain in the feet, which may be severe enough to interfere with walking. As the condition worsens, pain decreases but numbness increases.
The diagnosis of alcoholic paralysis depends largely upon the practitioner taking a thorough history and finding characteristic symptoms in patients who abuse alcohol. Other possible causes should be excluded by the appropriate tests, which may include blood chemistry, thyroid function tests, brain MRI or computed tomography (CT) scan, and/or cerebrospinal fluid analysis.
Acute alcoholic myopathy can be diagnosed by finding myoglobin in the urine and increased creatine kinase and other blood enzymes released from injured muscle. The surgical removal of a small piece of muscle for microscopic analysis (muscle biopsy) shows the scattered breakdown and repair of muscle fibers. Doctors must rule out other acquired causes of muscle breakdown, which include the abuse of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or amphetamines; trauma with crush injury; the depletion of phosphate or potassium; or an underlying defect in the metabolism of carbohydrates or lipids. In chronic alcoholic myopathy, serum creatine kinase often is normal, and muscle biopsy shows atrophy, or loss of muscle fibers. Electromyography (EMG) may show features characteristic of alcoholic myopathy or neuropathy.
Acute management of alcohol intoxication, delirium tremens, and withdrawal is primarily supportive, to monitor and treat any cardiovascular or respiratory failure that may develop. In delirium tremens, fever and sweating may necessitate treatment of fluid loss and secondary low blood pressure. Agitation may be treated with benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide, beta-adrenergic antagonists such as atenolol, or alpha 2-adrenergic agonists such as clonidine. Because Wernicke's syndrome is rapidly reversible with thiamine, and because death may intervene if thiamine is not given promptly, all patients admitted for acute complications of alcohol, as well as all patients with unexplained encephalopathy, should be given intravenous thiamine.
Withdrawal seizures typically resolve without specific anti-epileptic drug treatment, although status epilepticus (continual seizures occurring without interruption) should be treated vigorously with injections of phenytoin (Dilantin), diazepam (Valium), or phenobarbital. Acute alcoholic myopathy with myoglobinuria requires monitoring and maintenance of kidney function, and correction of imbalances in blood chemistry including potassium, phosphate, and magnesium levels.
Chronic alcoholic myopathy and other chronic conditions are treated by correcting associated nutritional deficiencies and maintaining a diet adequate in protein and carbohydrate. The key to treating any alcohol-related disease is helping the patient overcome alcohol addiction. Behavioral measures and social supports may
Complete recovery from Wernicke's syndrome may follow prompt administration of thiamine. However, repeated episodes of encephalopathy or prolonged alcohol abuse may cause persistent dementia or Korsakoff psychosis. Most patients recover fully from acute alcoholic myopathy within days to weeks, but severe cases may be fatal due to acute kidney failure or disturbances in heart rhythm secondary to increased potassium levels. Recovery from chronic alcoholic myopathy may occur over weeks to months of abstinence from alcohol and correction of malnutrition. Cerebellar degeneration and alcoholic neuropathy may also improve to some extent with abstinence and balanced diet, depending on the severity and duration of the condition.
Prevention requires abstinence from alcohol. Persons who consume small or moderate amounts of alcohol might theoretically help prevent nutritional complications of alcohol use with dietary supplements including B vitamins. Historically, it is known that the incidence of neurological damage to people afflicted with alcoholism was even greater before bakeries began to enrich bread with vitamins and minerals. However, proper nutrition cannot protect against the direct toxic effect of alcohol or of its breakdown products. Patients with any alcohol-related symptoms or conditions, pregnant women, and patients with liver or neurologic disease should abstain completely. Based upon several recent studies, persons with family history of alcoholism or alcohol-related conditions may be considered at increased risk for both alcoholism and the neurologic complications of alcohol use.
Health care team roles
Because alcohol is the most widely abused drug in our society, there is a prevalence of people with alcohol-related consequences in all treatment settings. Nearly every member of the health care team, across a broad spectrum of places including hospitals, nursing homes, clinics and even homes will be involved with the patient with alcohol-related neurological disease.
- Physicians, especially primary care physicians, have long been the front line of diagnosis and care for alcoholics, long before a neurologist (a physician who specializes in diseases of the nervous system) becomes involved. In the past education regarding alcoholism was not considered to be adequate, but this has changed considerably over the past two decades. Health care providers should take a comprehensive drinking history as part of any initial examination of a patient, and be aware that people suffering from alcoholism, a disease of denial, often say they drink less than they actually do.
- Nurses will be involved in the day to day treatment of people with alcohol-related neurological disease who are temporarily unable, or no longer able at all, to care for themselves. This may involve caring for and monitoring people in withdrawal or DT's, as well as providing supportive physical and emotional care, which may include administering medications, monitoring vital signs (blood pressure and pulse), providing fluids either by mouth or intravenously, preventing injuries during seizures or from falls, and encouraging sobriety through a calm, non-judgmental attitude.
- Physiotherapists may often become involved in helping the person with an alcohol-related neurological condition to restore their ability to walk safely. This may involve repetitively practicing various steps and providing encouragement to the person.
- Certified alcoholism counselors (CACs) can help the alcoholic patient to come to terms with this most baffling, difficult disease. The CAC can provide information not only on the disease of alcoholism, but the many programs available to help deal with it, including Alcoholics Anonymous and Rational Recovery.
Abstinence—Refraining from the use of alcoholic beverages.
Atrophy—A wasting or decrease in size of a muscle or other tissue.
Cerebellum—The part of the brain involved in coordination of movement, walking, and balance.
Degeneration—Gradual, progressive loss of nerve cells.
Delirium—Sudden confusion with decreased or fluctuating level of consciousness.
Delirium tremens—A complication that may accompany alcohol withdrawal. The symptoms include body shaking (tremulousness), insomnia, agitation, confusion, hearing voices or seeing images that are not really there (hallucinations), seizures, rapid heart beat, profuse sweating, high blood pressure, and fever.
Dementia—Loss of memory and other higher functions, such as thinking or speech, lasting six months or more.
Myoglobinuria—Reddish urine caused by excretion of myoglobin, a breakdown product of muscle.
Myopathy—A disorder that causes weakening of muscles.
Neuropathy—A condition affecting the nerves supplying the arms and legs. Typically, the feet and hands are involved first. If sensory nerves are involved, numbness, tingling, and pain are prominent, and if motor nerves are involved, the patient experiences weakness.
Thiamine—A B vitamin essential for the body to process carbohydrates and fats. Alcoholics may suffer complications (including Wernike-Korsakoff syndrome) from a deficiency of this vitamin.
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome—A combination of symptoms, including eye-movement problems, tremors, and confusion, that is caused by a lack of the B vitamin thiamine and may be seen in alcoholics.
"Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium." In The Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice, 7th ed. Edited by Sandra Nettina. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 2001, pp. 1092-3.
Canadian Paediatric Society and Canadian Center on Substance Abuse. <http://www.HealthCanada.org>.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 6000 Executive Boulevard, Willco Building, Bethesda, MD 20892-7003. <http://silk.nih.gov/silk/niaaa1>.
Joan M. Schonbeck