Generic: milk thistle
an herbal product - treats Cirrhosis, Amanita phalloides mushroom poisoning, High cholesterol, Chronic hepatitis, Liver damage from drugs or toxins, Acute viral hepatitis, Cancer, and Diabetes
This information is based on a professional level monograph edited and peer- reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): E- P Barrette, MD (Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine); Ethan Basch, MD (Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center); Samuel Basch, MD (Mt. Sinai Medical Center, NY); Heather Boon, B.Sc.Phm, PhD (University of Toronto); Dawn Costa, BA, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Ivo Foppa, MD, ScD (Harvard School of Public Health); Paul Hammerness, MD (Harvard Medical School); Katie Nummy, BS (Northeastern University); David Sollars, MAc, HMC (New England School of Acupuncture); Philippe Szapary, MD (University of Pennsylvania); Shaina Tanguay- Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Meng Yeng, PharmD (ACS- Consultec).
BibliographyDISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence- based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Buzzelli G, Moscarella S, Giusti A, et al. A pilot study on the liver protective effect of silybinphosphatidylcholine complex (IdB1016) in chronic active hepatitis. Int.J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1993;31(9):456- 460.
Ladas EJ, Kelly KM. Milk thistle: is there a role for its use as an adjunct therapy in patients with cancer? J Altern Complement Med 2003;9(3):411- 416.
Lawrence V, Jacobs B, Dennehy C, et al. Report on milk thistle: effects on liver disease and cirrhosis and clinical adverse effects. Evidence Report/ Technology Assessment No. 21 (Contract 290- 97- 0012 to the San Antonio Evidence- based Practice Center, based at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, and The Veterans Evidence- based Research, Dissemination, and Implementation Center, a Veterans Affairs Services Research and Development Center of Excellence). AHRQ Publication No. 01- E025. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. October 2000.
Lucena MI, Andrade RJ, de la Cruz JP, et al. Effects of silymarin MZ- 80 on oxidative stress in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Results of a randomized, double- blind, placebo- controlled clinical study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;40(1):2- 8.
Madisch A, Melderis H, Mayr G, et al. [A plant extract and its modified preparation in functional dyspepsia. Results of a double- blind placebo controlled comparative study]. Z Gastroenterol 2001;39(7):511- 517.
Melhem A, Stern M, Shibolet O, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection via antioxidants: results of a phase I clinical trial. J Clin Gastroenterol 2005 Sep;39(8):737- 42.
Pares A, Planas R, Torres M, et al. Effects of silymarin in alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of the liver: results of a controlled, double- blind, randomized and multicenter trial. J Hepatol 1998;28(4):615- 621.
Rambaldi A, Jacobs BP, Iaquinto G, et al. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/ or hepatitis B or C liver diseases- - a systematic cochrane hepato- biliary group review with meta- analyses of randomized clinical trials. Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Nov;100(11):2583- 91.
Rambaldi A, Jacobs BP, Gluud C. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/ or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD003620. Update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(2):CD003620.
Schroder FH, Roobol MJ, Boeve ER, et al. Randomized, double- blind, placebo- controlled crossover study in men with prostate cancer and rising PSA: effectiveness of a dietary supplement. Eur Urol 2005 Dec;48(6):922- 30; discussion 930- 1.
Tyagi AK, Singh RP, Agarwal C, et al. Silibinin strongly synergizes human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells to doxorubicin- induced growth Inhibition, G2- M arrest, and apoptosis. Clin Cancer Res 2002;8(11):3512- 3519.
Velussi M, Cernigoi AM, Viezzoli L, et al. Silymarin reduces hyperinsulinemia, malondialdehyde levels, and daily insulin need in cirrhotic diabetic patients. Curr Ther Res 1993;53(5):533- 545.
Velussi M, Cernigoi AM, De Monte A, et al. Long- term (12 months) treatment with an anti- oxidant drug (silymarin) is effective on hyperinsulinemia, exogenous insulin need and malondialdehyde levels in cirrhotic diabetic patients. J Hepatol 1997;26(4):871- 879.
Whittington C. Exacerbation of hemochromatosis by ingestion of milk thistle. Can Fam Physician 2007 Oct;53(10):1671- 3.
Zuber R, Modriansky M, Dvorak Z, et al. Effect of silybin and its congeners on human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 activities. Phytother Res 2002;16(7):632- 638.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.