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  • Basic Info
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Generic: evening primrose
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an herbal product - treats Cardiovascular health, Obesity/weight loss, Raynaud's phenomenon, Pre-eclampsia/high blood pressure of pregnancy, Multiple sclerosis, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Diabetic neuropathy, Asthma, Osteoporosis, Breast cysts, Breast pain, Diabetes, Schizophrenia, Scale-like dry skin, Rheumatoid arthritis, Psoriasis, Breast cancer, Bronchitis, Pre-menstrual syndrome, Chronic fatigue syndrome/post-viral infection symptoms, Atopic dermatitis, and Menopause
               



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Attribution

This information is based on a professional level monograph edited and peer- reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): E- P Barrette, MD (Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine); Ethan Basch, MD, MSc, MPhil (Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center); Samuel Basch, MD (Mt. Sinai Medical Center); Steve Bent, MD (University of California, San Francisco); Heather Boon, BScPhm, PhD (University of Toronto); Wendy Chao, PhD (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Dawn Costa, BA, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Cynthia Dacey, PharmD (Northeastern University); Edzard Ernst, MD, PhD (University of Exeter); Paul Hammerness, MD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Shaina Tanguay- Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Mamta Vora, PharmD (Northeastern University); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Peter Wolsko, MD (Harvard Medical School).

Bibliography

DISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence- based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

Blommers J, de Lange- De Klerk ES, Kuik DJ, et al. Evening primrose oil and fish oil for severe chronic mastalgia: a randomized, double- blind, controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187(5):1389- 1394.

Cancelo Hidalgo MJ, Castelo- Branco C, et al. Effect of a compound containing isoflavones, primrose oil and vitamin E in two different doses on climacteric symptoms. J Obstet Gynaecol 2006 May;26(4):344- 7.

Gateley CA, Pye JK, Harrison BJ et al. Evening primrose oil (Efamol), a safe treatment option for breast disease. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2001;(14):161.

Gruenwald J, Graubaum HJ, Busch R. Evaluation of the non- inferiority of a fixed combination of thyme fluid- and primrose root extract in comparison to a fixed combination of thyme fluid extract and primrose root tincture in patients with acute bronchitis. A single- blind, randomized, bi- centric clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 2006;56(8):574- 81.

Hederos CA, Berg A. Epogam evening primrose oil treatment in atopic dermatitis and asthma. Arch Dis Child 1996; 75(6):494- 497.

Humphreys F, Symons J, Brown H, et al. The effects of gamolenic acid on adult atopic eczema and premenstrual exacerbation of eczema. Eur J Dermatol 1994;4(598):603.

Huntley AL, Ernst E. A systematic review of herbal medicinal products for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Menopause 2003;10(5):465- 476.

Jack AM, Keegan A, Cotter MA, et al. Effects of diabetes and evening primrose oil treatment on responses of aorta, corpus cavernosum and mesenteric vasculature in rats. Life Sci 2002;71(16):1863- 1877.

Joe LA, Hart LL. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27(12):1475- 1477.

Joy CB, Mumby- Croft R, Joy LA. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD001257.

Kemmerich B. Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of dry extracts of thyme herb and primrose root in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough. A prospective, double- blind, placebo- controlled multicentre clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 2007;57(9):607- 15.

Puri BK. The safety of evening primrose oil in epilepsy. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2007 Aug;77(2):101- 3.

Qureshi S, Sultan N. Topical nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs versus oil of evening primrose in the treatment of mastalgia. Surgeon 2005 Feb;3(1):7- 10.

Whitaker DK, Cilliers J, de Beer C. Evening primrose oil (Epogam) in the treatment of chronic hand dermatitis: disappointing therapeutic results. Dermatology 1996;193(2):115- 120.

Yoshimoto- Furuie K, Yoshimoto K, Tanaka T, et al. Effects of oral supplementation with evening primrose oil for six weeks on plasma essential fatty acids and uremic skin symptoms in hemodialysis patients. Nephron 1999;81(2):151- 159.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

               
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