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  • Basic Info
Licensed from
Generic: astaxanthin diphosphate
treats Male infertility, Rheumatoid arthritis, Carpal tunnel syndrome, High cholesterol, Musculoskeletal injuries, and Muscle strength

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This information is based on a professional level monograph edited and peer- reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Ernest B. Hawkins, MS, BSPharm (Health Education Resources); Ashley Brigham, PharmD (Northeastern University); Jessica Clubb, PharmD (Northeastern University); Catherine DeFranco Kirkwood, MPH, CCCJS- MAC (MD Anderson Cancer Center); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Petra Jancar, PharmD (University of Ljubljana); Audrey Nealon, PharmD (Northeastern University); Shaina Tanguay- Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Toni M. Schaeffer, PhD, PharmD (Albany College of Pharmacy); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).


DISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence- based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

Anderson ML. A preliminary investigation of the enzymatic inhibition of 5alpha- reduction and growth of prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap- FGC by natural astaxanthin and Saw Palmetto lipid extract in vitro. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2005;5(1):17- 26.

Bertram JS, Vine AL. Cancer prevention by retinoids and carotenoids: independent action on a common target. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 5- 30- 2005;1740(2):170- 178.

Bloomer RJ, Fry A, Schilling B, et al. Astaxanthin supplementation does not attenuate muscle injury following eccentric exercise in resistance- trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2005;15(4):401- 412.

Chew BP, Park JS. Carotenoid action on the immune response. J Nutr 2004;134(1):257S- 261S.

Comhaire FH, El Garem Y, Mahmoud A, et al. Combined conventional/ antioxidant "Astaxanthin" treatment for male infertility: a double blind, randomized trial. Asian J Androl 2005;7(3):257- 262.

Coral- Hinostroza GN, Ytrestoyl T, Ruyter B, et al. Plasma appearance of unesterified astaxanthin geometrical E/ Z and optical R/ S isomers in men given single doses of a mixture of optical 3 and 3'R/ S isomers of astaxanthin fatty acyl diesters. Comp Biochem Physiol C.Toxicol Pharmacol 2004;139(1- 3):99- 110.

Daubrawa F, Sies H, Stahl W. Astaxanthin diminishes gap junctional intercellular communication in primary human fibroblasts. J Nutr 2005;135(11):2507- 2511.

Hussein G, Nakamura M, Zhao Q, et al. Antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin in experimental animals. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28(1):47- 52.

Hussein G, Sankawa U, Goto H, et al. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid with potential in human health and nutrition. J Nat Prod 2006;69(3):443- 449.

Lockwood SF, Gross GJ. Disodium disuccinate astaxanthin (Cardax): antioxidant and antiinflammatory cardioprotection. Cardiovasc.Drug Rev 2005;23(3):199- 216.

Mason RP, Walter MF, McNulty HP, et al. Rofecoxib increases susceptibility of human LDL and membrane lipids to oxidative damage: a mechanism of cardiotoxicity. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2006;47 Suppl 1:S7- 14.

Nir Y, Spiller G, Multz C. Effect of an astaxanthin containing product on carpal tunnel syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21:489.

Nir Y, Spiller G, Multz C. Effect of an astaxanthin containing product on rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21:490.

Teo IT, Chui CH, Tang JC, et al. Antiproliferation and induction of cell death of Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) extract fermented by brewer malt waste on breast cancer cells. Int J Mol Med 2005;16(5):931- 936.

Vine AL, Bertram JS. Upregulation of connexin 43 by retinoids but not by non- provitamin A carotenoids requires RARs. Nutr Cancer 2005;52(1):105- 113.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

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