Generic: Piper nigrum
treats Smoking cessation and Stroke recovery
TraditionWARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Allergic rhinitis, Alzheimer's disease, antibacterial, anti- inflammatory, antioxidant, diarrhea, food uses, Helicobacter pylori infection, insecticidal, measles, obesity, pain, positive energy balance.
Adults (over 18 years old)
There is no proven effective dose for black pepper in adults. However, nasal inhalation of volatile black pepper oil for one minute for up to one month has been studied to help with difficulty swallowing during stroke recovery.
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven effective dose for black pepper in children.
SafetyDISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to black pepper.
Side Effects and Warnings
Black pepper is likely safe when consumed in food amounts. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved black pepper, black pepper oil, black pepper oleoresin, piperidine, and piperine as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use in foods in the United States.
Patients taking cholinergic agonists, cyclosporine A, digoxin, cytochrome P450 metabolized agents, herbs or drugs by mouth, phenytoin, propranolol, rifamipicin (rifampin), or theophylline should use black pepper cautiously.
Possible side effects of taking black pepper in medicinal amounts by mouth may include stomach upset or other gastrointestinal adverse effects. Use cautiously in patients with gastrointestinal disorders.
Inhaling black pepper may cause respiratory irritation, edema (swelling), and even respiratory arrest, severe anoxia (lack of oxygen), and death.
There may also be a link between ingestion of black pepper and nasopharyngeal or esophageal cancer, although there is controversy in this area.
Avoid in patients with a known allergyor hypersensitivity to black pepper (Piper nigrum), its constituents, or members of the Piperaceae family.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding