treats Laxative/bowel preparation for procedures, Burns, Exercise performance, Hypercalcemia, Bone density, Total parenteral nutrition, Refeeding syndrome prevention, Vitamin D resistant rickets, Kidney stones, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Hyperparathyroidism, Constipation, Hypercalciuria, and Hypophosphatemia
SafetyDISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
Avoid if allergic to any ingredients in phosphorus/ phosphate preparations.
Side Effects and Warnings
In general, sodium, potassium, aluminum, and calcium phosphates are likely safe when used orally in recommended doses for short- term periods by people without hyperphosphatemia, impaired kidney function, or other health conditions known to increase the risk of hyperphosphatemia. Sodium phosphate is likely safe when used rectally for short- term periods in otherwise healthy individuals with normal kidney function. Long- term use or high doses used orally or rectally require monitoring of serum electrolytes. Intravenous phosphate is likely safe when used as an U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)- approved prescription drug under medical supervision in people without hyperphosphatemia, impaired kidney function, or other health conditions known to increase the risk of hyperphosphatemia.
Excessive intake of phosphates can cause potentially serious or life- threatening toxicity. Intravenous, oral, or rectal/ enema phosphates may cause electrolyte disturbances including hypocalcemia (low calcium blood levels), hypomagnesemia (low magnesium blood levels), hyperphosphatemia (high phosphorus blood levels), or hypokalemia (low potassium levels). Calcification of non- skeletal tissues (particularly in the kidneys), severe hypotension (low blood pressure), dehydration, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney failure, or tetany can occur. Death has been reported in infants or adults with oral, rectal, or intravenous phosphates, particularly in those at increased risk for electrolyte disturbances. Late symptoms may include abdominal pain, vomiting of phosphorescent materials, bloody vomiting and diarrhea, headache, limb aches, tongue coating, foul breath, weakness, and yellow conjunctivae (whites of the eyes). Rare complications may include confusion, convulsions (seizures), headache, dizziness, numbness, tingling, pain, weakness, anxiety, increased thirst, muscle cramps, or fatigue. Abnormal heart rhythms, shortness of breath, foot/ leg swelling, and weight gain have been reported.
Nausea or gastrointestinal irritation can occur. A reduction in dosage may be necessary to minimize diarrhea. Potassium acid phosphate may cause dyspepsia in patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease. Aluminum phosphate can cause constipation.
Conditions that may be worsened with excessive phosphorus/ phosphate supplementation include burns, heart disease, pancreatitis, rickets, osteomalacia (softening of bones), underactive parathyroid glands (with sodium phosphate or potassium phosphate), underactive adrenal glands (potassium phosphate may increase the risk of hyperkalemia), liver disease, and toxemia of pregnancy.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Pregnancy Category: C.
The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for phosphorus in pregnant women is 3.5 grams per day, and in breastfeeding women it is 4 grams per day. The recommended daily intake in pregnant or breastfeeding females 18 years old and younger is 1,250 milligrams per day.