Generic: Betel Nut
treats Schizophrenia, Dental cavities, Stimulant, Ulcerative colitis, Anemia, Stroke recovery, and Saliva stimulant
This information is based on a professional level monograph edited and peer- reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Ethan Basch, MD (Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center); Dawn Costa, BA, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Cynthia Dacey, PharmD (Northeastern University); Gerald Gianutsos, PhD, JD (University of Connecticut); Paul Hammerness, MD (Harvard Medical School); Adrianne Rogers, MD (Boston University School of Medicine); David Sollars MAc, HMC (New England School of Acupuncture); Andrew Stein, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences); Shaina Tanguay- Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Mamta Vora, PharmD (Northeastern University); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).
BibliographyDISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence- based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Chitra S, Ashok L, Anand L, et al. Risk factors for esophageal cancer in Coimbatore, southern India: a hospital- based case- control study. Indian J Gastroenterol 2004;23(1):19- 21.
Deng JF, Ger J, Tsai WJ, et al. Acute toxicities of betel nut: rare but probably overlooked events. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2001;39(4):355- 360.
Huang Z, Xiao B, Wang X, et al. Betel nut indulgence as a cause of epilepsy. Seizure. 2003;12(6):406- 408.
Jeng JH, Chang MC, Hahn LJ. Role of areca nut in betel quid- associated chemical carcinogenesis: current awareness and future perspectives. Oral Oncol 2001;37(6):477- 492.
Kuruppuarachchi KA, Williams SS. Betel use and schizophrenia. Br.J.Psychiatry 2003;182:455.
Lee CN, Jayanthi V, McDonald B, et al. Betel nut and smoking. Are they both protective in ulcerative colitis? A pilot study. Arq Gastroenterol 1996;33(1):3- 5.
Liao CT, Chen IH, Chang JT, et al. Lack of correlation of betel nut chewing, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption with telomerase activity and the severity of oral cancer. Chang Gung Med J 2003;26(9):637- 645.
Mannan N, Boucher BJ, Evans SJ. Increased waist size and weight in relation to consumption of Areca catechu (betel- nut); a risk factor for increased glycaemia in Asians in east London. Br J Nutr 2000;83(3):267- 273.
Shiu MN, Chen TH, Chang SH, et al. Risk factors for leukoplakia and malignant transformation to oral carcinoma: a leukoplakia cohort in Taiwan. Br J Cancer 2000;82(11):1871- 1874.
Stoopler ET, Parisi E, Sollecito TP. Betel quid- induced oral lichen planus: a case report. Cutis 2003;71(4):307- 311.
Sullivan RJ, Andres S, Otto C, et al. The effects of an indigenous muscarinic drug, Betel nut (Areca catechu), on the symptoms of schizophrenia: a longitudinal study in Palau, Micronesia. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164(4):670- 673.
Tsai JF, Chuang LY, Jeng JE, et al. Betel quid chewing as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: a case- control study. Br J Cancer 3- 2- 2001;84(5):709- 713.
Tung TH, Chiu YH, Chen LS, et al. A population- based study of the association between areca nut chewing and type 2 diabetes mellitus in men (Keelung Community- based Integrated Screening programme No. 2). Diabetologia 2004;47(10):1776- 1781.
Wu IC, Lu CY, Kuo FC, et al. Interaction between cigarette, alcohol and betel nut use on esophageal cancer risk in Taiwan. Eur J Clin Invest 2006;36(4):236- 241.
Yin XM, Peng JY, Gao YJ. [Clinical study on the relationship between tooth abrasion and the habits of chewing betel nut]. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2003;28(2):171- 173.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.